PR Red Pigments The Color of Art Pigment Database: Pigment Violet, PV

Artist's Paint and Pigments Reference: Color Index Names, Color index Number and Pigment Chemical Composition

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Pigment Violet PV Violet Pigments
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Jump to CI Pigment Violet Number:
NV 1;
PV 1, PV 1:1,PV 1:2, PV 2, PV 2:2, PV 3, PV 3:1, PV 3:3 PV 5, PV 5:1, PV 7, PV 13, PV 14, PV 15, PV 16, PV 18, PV 19, PV 23, PV 25, PV 27, PV 29, PV 31, PV 32, PV 36, PV 37, PV39, PV 42, PV 44, PV 47, PV 48, PV 49, PV 50, PV55, PV 58, PV 171,
Amethyst; BV1; BV15; Cobalt Arsenate; Copper Violet; Violet Hematit; Folium; Han Purple; Manganous Phosphate; Purple Sugilite; Purpurite; Silver chromate; Vesuvianite

Where applicable, you can click on the artist paint or pigment company code found in the "Common Historic and Marketing Name Column" next to the pigments name. The links will take off site where you can find more specific paint, binder, and pigment properties, including MSDS sheets or a retailer that stocks that brand of paint or pigment. Just hit your back button to return. See the Key at the bottom of any page for the artist media or binder company codes and links to the brands websites. NOTE: d in italics indicates a discontinued paint or pigment, all other medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment/paint is in the student grade, not the "artist's" professional premium paint. See the Key (at the bottom of the page) for artist media and binder codes.

Historic violet and Purple Pigments Historic Violet Pigments and Mineral Pigments without Color Index Names
Historic Violet Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Violet  |  CI Pigment Violet  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
I = excell.

Oil Absorption
Side Notes




Amethyst Genuine* [DS.w]


Quartz crystal, purple color due to iron impurities (Ref mindat). (Pics);

Amethyst (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

pinkish purple





(Ref) Pigment Compendium By Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddal;

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor site.



Fluorescent Blue Violet

Blue Violet [];


Fluorescent Pigment

Fluorescent Blue violet







Fluorescent Magenta

Magenta [HO.g];

Violet [HO.g];


Fluorescent Pigment

Fluorescent Magenta







Cobalt Arsenate

Arsenate of Cobalt;

Cobalt Arsenate [HO.o];

Cobalt Arsenic Oxide;

Cobalt Bloom*;

Cobalt Crust*;

Cobaltous Arsenate;

Cobalt Violet;

Cobalt Violet Light [HOd];




Red Cobalt Ochre*;


Tricobalt diarsenate;

Vivianite Arsenate of Cobalt;



Cobalt (II) Arsenate;

Anhydrous cobalt arsenate;

Cobalt Arsenic Oxide (Pigment Compendium, Ref);


* Natural Mineral Erythrite (Mineral Ref), (Mineral Ref);

Roselite (Mineral Ref);


*** Zaffre is an early alchemy substance of impure cobalt arsenate;


CAS 24719-19-5

Pale Reddish to medium purple


I *





*" it is absolutely permanent and transparent but has little tinting power.

It has some use as an artists' oil and water color pigment" (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77350)


Copper Violet

Copper Violet;

Guyard's Violet


Cupric potassium ferrocyanide, Prepared by heating the precipitate of copper ammonium sulfate and potassium ferrocyanide at 170°C (Ref The Manufacture of Mineral and Lake Pigments (1901) By Josef Bersch)

Blue Violet





"a violet pigment having a great covering power" (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77432)



Violet Hematite

Blood Stone;

Blue Ridge Violet Hematite [NP.p];

Bruno Inglese;

Caput Mortem;

Caput Mortum;

Caput Mortuum;


Colore Morello;

Corpum Mortum;

Côte d'Azur Violet [DS.w];


Mummy Violet [NP.p];

Pigment Red 102;

Vetriolo Romano Bruciato;

Vetriolo Cotto;

Violet Hematite [DS.w | NP.p];


Violet Hematite (Ref); Natural Iron Oxide

Light violet to deep dark violet








Biseth of Folium;

English Woad;


Trapilo Blue;

Trapito Blue;


Turnsole Violet;



Lake extract from the fruit of the Turnsole or Heliotropum Plant

Reddish to Bluish Violets





Can change color due to PH similar to litmus; Has been used in manuscript illumination


Han Purple

China Blue;

Chinese Purple;

Han Blue;

Han Purple [KP.p];



Barium copper silicate;

Vivid purple





Being studied by physicists for it's Quantum behavior. (Ref)


Manganous Phosphate

Manganous Phosphate


Manganous phosphate








Purple Sugilite

Royal Azel;

Royal Lavulite;

Royal Purple Sugilite;

Purple Turquoise;


Gem Sugilite;

Royal Lazelle;

Sugilite Genuine* [DS.w];


Semi-precious gem: Potassium Sodium Lithium Iron Manganese Aluminum Silicate.; (Ref)

Deep reddish purple**





Little info of it's use as a pigment is available. Can be attained from some sources for use in cosmetics;

*more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other mineral pigments use for art at the watercolor site;

** seems to lighten the finer it is ground.



Iron Manganese Phosphate;

Pigment Violet 16;

Purpurite [KP.p];

Purpurite Genuine* [DS.o.w]


Mostly Manganese (III) Phosphate may have impieties of iron; Natural form of Pigment Violet 16 probably without as much processing (Ref), (Ref), (Ref)

Pink to deep reddish violet





Rare mineral (Ref);

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other mineral pigments use for art at the watercolor site



Silver chromate

Purple Red;

Silver Chromate


Silver chromate: Precipitate silver nitrate with potassium chromate (Ref Inorganic Coloring Matters, Color Index 3rd Ed.)

Reddish purple









Vesuvianite [KP.p]


Metamorphic mineral; Complex iron-manganese-silicate; (Ref)

light dull purple







Natural Violet and Purple Pigments NV Natural Violet - Color Index Name: NV
Historic Violet Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Violet  |  CI Pigment Violet  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
I = excell.

Oil Absorption
Side Notes


Tyrian Purple


Byzantium Purple;

C.I. Natural Violet 1;

French Purple;

Genuine, Imperial Purple [KP.p];

Grecian Purple;

Imperial Purple;

Murex Purple;


Purpurissum [KP.p];

Purple Fish;

Purple of Mollusca;

Purple of the Ancients;

Roman Ostrum;

Royal Purple;

Shellfish Purple;


Tyrian Purple;


Preparation from the ink of the shellfish Murex trunculis and Murex brandaris;

6,6´-dibromindigo with other impurities;


CAS 19201-53-7

Reddish to Bluish Deep Purple





1 gram of this dye
is made from the secretion of 10,000 sea snails. (Ref).;Synthesized from Coal Tar in 1904

Pigment Violet PV Pigment Violet - Color Index Name: PV
Historic Violet Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Violet  |  CI Pigment Violet  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
I = excell.

Oil Absorption
Side Notes


Rhodamine Violet

Basic Violet 10;

Blue Violet;

Brilliant Purple [WN.g];

Brilliant Red Violet [SCH.w | WN.g];

C.I. Pigment Violet 1;

Fast Rose Lake;

Pigment Violet 1;

Purple Violet;


Rhodamine 610;

Tyrian Rose [SE.w]



Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-

molybdic acid salt;

CAS 1326-03-0

Bright fluorescent reddish violet





* "The fluorescent dye Rhodamine B is toxic, and its use is banned in food, textiles, and cosmetics." "With proper preparation, the pigment Rhodamine B Lake is considered harmless, even if ingested." -Dick Blick Site (Ref).;


**Fluorescent paints are not recommended for permanent art work unless it will be completely protected from light.



Pigment Violet 1:1

C.I. Pigment Violet 1:1;

Pigment Violet 1:1;



Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-

molybdic acid salt

Bright reddish violet







Rhodamine B Molybdate

C.I. Pigment Violet 1:2;

Normandy Magenta;

Rhodamine B Molybdate


Rhodamine B Molybdate





† Darkens







Brillfast Vivid Magenta 6B;

C.I. Pigment Violet 2;

Fanal Violet D 5460;

Light Purple;

Parma Violet;

Pigment Violet 2;

Purple Lake;



Vivid Magenta 6B;

Xanthene PTMA;


Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-

molybdic acid salt;


CAS 1326-04-1

Bright reddish violet







Pigment Violet 2:2

C.I. Pigment Violet 2:2;

Pigment Violet 2:2;

Rhodamine 3B PTMA


Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-

molybdic acid salt








M Methyl Violet

Blue Violet [SE];

Brilliant Blue Violet [SCH.w];

C.I. Pigment Violet 3;

Fast Violet Lake;

Gentian Violet;

Light Purple;

Methyl Violet;

Methyl Violet Tungstomolybdate;

Methyl Violet SMA;

M Methyl Violet;

Parma Violet;

Pigment Violet 3;

Purple Lake;

Spectrum Violet [WN.g];



Triphenylmethane Phosphotungsto-

molybdic acid salt;


CAS 1325-82-2

Bright bluish violet




† Darkens




"Methyl Violet 2B is harmful to living cells and organisms, so it is diluted in medical and biological applications as a topical fungicide or disinfectant."= Dick Blick Website (Ref)


Methyl Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 3:1;

Lamprolac Violet BM;

Methyl Violet;

Methyl Violet Molybdate;

Pigment Violet 3:1


Triphenylmethane Silicomolybdic acid salt;


CAS 68647-35-8

Bright bluish violet




† Darkens






Methyl Violet Tannate

C.I. Pigment Violet 3:3;

Methyl Violet Tannate;

Pigment Violet 3:3


Triphenylmethane Tannic acid salt;


CAS 68308-41-8

Bright bluish violet







Alizarine Violet

Alizarine Violet [KP.p];

Alizarin Violet Lake (hue) [SE.os];

C.I. Pigment Violet 5;

Fanchon Maroon;

Pigment Violet 5;

Quinizarin Maroon [DS.o]




CAS 22297-70-7

Bright Violet






* Good lightfastness in mass tone but poor in tints


Quinazarine Super Maroon

Alizarine Violet (hue) [GU | KP.p];

C.I. Pigment Violet 5:1;

Pigment Violet 5:1;

Quinazarine Super Maroon;




CAS 1328-04-7

Bright reddish violet






*Blue wool scale 7-8 in mass tone, 5-6 in tints


Anthraquinone violet

Anthraquinone violet;

C.I. Pigment Violet 7;

Pigment Violet 7










Transparent Violet B


C.I. Pigment Violet 13;

Pigment Violet 13




Maroon Violet-







Cobalt violet

Caprice Violet [GU];

C.I. Pigment Violet 14;

Cobalt Magenta [DR.w];

Cobalt Phosphate;

Cobalt Pink;

Cobalt Red;

Cobalt Red Violet;

Cobalt Rose [GR.o];

Cobalt Violet [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | CL | DB.w | DR.o |DV.k.o.w | GB.o | GR.w | GU | LK | MG.o.w | PF.w | RGH.o.p | RT.o.w | SCH.o(Mus) | SQ.a | UT | WN.o.w.w.wp.];

Cobalt Violet Dark [AS | KP.p | MH.o | OH.o.w | SI.p | WNd];

Cobalt Violet Deep [BX.o | BR | DS.o.w | HO.o | KA.p | MA.o.o(artis).p | LB.o | RF.e | SE.p | WL.o.p];

Cobalt Violet Light [HO.o.w | MH.o | OH.o.w];

Cobalt Violet Pale [MA.o.o(artis).p];

Cobalt Violet Pink Shade [BR];

Cobalt Violet Pink Shade Light [BR];

Cobalt Raspberry [GU];

Cobalt Violet Rose [DV];

Cobalto Violeta;

Kobalt Violet;

Light True Cobalt Violet [PF.o];

Pigment Violet 14;

True Cobalt Violet Light [PF.o];

Violet de Cobalt;

Violetto cobalto




Cobaltous phosphate;

Cobalt phosphate;

Calcined Cobalt (II) Oxide and Phosphorus (V) Oxide forming an interdiffused, homogeneous crystalline phosphate;


How Cobalt Violet is made at


CPMA 8-11-1


CAS 10101-56-1;

CAS 13455-36-2'

CAS 00088-04-0

Light reddish to Deep dark blue Violet



(guerra paint)






Ultramarine Violet

Cobalt Violet (hue) [LK];

C.I. Pigment Violet 15;

Grasse Violet [MA.o(Med)];

Mineral Violet [HO.w | SH.w];

Pigment Violet 15;

SF Ultramarine Pink [WL.o(SF).];

SF Ultramarine Violet [WL.o(SF).];

Ultra Violet;

Ultramarine Pink [WL.o.o(SF).p];

Ultramarine Red [DS.w | MA.o(artis) | SCH.p];

Ultramarine Rose [MA.p];

Ultramarine Violet [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | CAS.k | DB.o | DR.w | DS.a.o.w | DV.k.w | EP.p | GB.o.o | | GU | KA.p | LK | MA.o.o(artis).p.w | MG.a.o | MH.o | OH.a.o.w | RF.e | RGH.o.p | RT.o.w | SCH.p | SE.a.o.p | SQ.a | UT.o | WL.o.o(SF).p | WN.a.o.w.wp];

Ultramarine Violet Blue Shade [GU];

Ultramarine Violet Dark [KP.p];

Ultramarine Violet Deep [GU | MG.w];

Ultramarine Violet Light reddish [KP.p];

Ultramarine Violet Medium [KP.p];

Ultramarine Violet, Reddish dark [SI.p];

Ultramarine Violet, Reddish light [SI.p];

Ultramarine Violet Red Shade [GU];

Ultra Violet [WN.o];

Ultra Violet Reddish [SQ.a];

Ultra Violet Blue Shade [ ];

Ultra Violet Red Shade [ ];

Violet Outremer;

Violet Ultramarine



Sodium aluminium sulfosilicate (blue shade); sodium aluminium sulfur silicate (red shade);

The creation of Ultramarine Violet is carried out by heating at 200–250°C a mixture of ultramarine blue and 2.5–5% ammonium chloride. It takes 4 days of calcining while being exposed to the air until a purple hue is created.

Ultramarine Red is derived from ultramarine violet by heating it for four hours with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 200°C. It's creation can also be accomplished by heating ultramarine violet at a even higher temperatures with gaseous nitric acid (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008);.


CAS 12769-96-9

Blue shade to mid-shade, pinkish to violet † some tests have shown it to whiten slightly after a long period of time



(guerra paint)






Manganese Violet

Burgundy Violet;

C.I. Pigment Violet 16;

Cosmetic Manganese Violet [GU];

Manganese Dark Violet;

Manganese Violet [GEN | BX.o.w | CH | DB.o | DR | DS.o.w | DV.k.w | GB.o.p | KP.p | MA.o(artis).p | MH.o | RGH.o.p | RF.e | SCH.p.w | SE.o.os.w | SI.p | SQ.a | SV | UT.o.w | WL.o.p];

Manganese Violet Bleuness [OH.o.w];

Manganese Violet Blue Shade [GU];

Manganese Violet-Blueness [OH.o.w];

Manganese Violet Deep [KA.p];

Manganese Violet Reddish [OH.o.w];

Manganese Violet Red Shade [GU];

Manganese Violet Bleuness [OH.o.w];

Mineral Violet [AS | DR.o | HO.o.wo | MA.o.w | MG.w | SE.p];

Mineral Violet Light [LB.o];

Nuernberger Violet;

Nurnberg Violet;

Nürnberg Violet;

Permanent Blue Violet [RT.o];

Permanent Mauve [WN.o.w.wp];

Permanent Violet [WNd];

Permanent Violet Light [CH];

Phosphate of Manganese;

Pigment Violet 16;



A double salt of Phosphuric Acid with Manganese and Ammonium;


Manganese ammonium pyrophosphate;

Ammonium manganic pyrophosphate;


CAS 10101-66-3

Red shade to blue shade deep purple






Decomposed by strong acids and alkalis.


Ferro Light Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 18;

Ferro Light Violet;

Pigment Violet 18










Quinacridone Violet

Acra Crimson;

Acra Violet;

Acridone Red;

Alizarin Crimson (hue) [];

Alizarin Crimson (Quinacridone) [DV.a.o.w];

Alizarin Rose (hue) [DB.w | GR.w];

Alps Red [HO.a.o];

Antique Pink [HO];

Australian Red Violet [MT];

Bocour Red;

Cad. Red Deep Hue (Primaire) [SE.o.];

Cadmium Red Deep Hue (Primaire) [SE.o.];

Caesar Purple [SCH.o(Mus).];

Carmine (hue) [ | SCH.g.p];

Carmine (quinacridone) [DV.o.w];

Carmine Hue [GR.w];


C.I. Pigment Violet 19;

Cinquasia Red (Y/B/R shades);

Cinquasia® Violet RT 201 D [KP.p];

Cinquasia® Violet [KP.p];

Cinquasia Violet (B/R shades);

Dark violet;

Deep Rose [RT];

Flinders Red Violet [AS];

Garnet (hue) [PF.o];

Garnet Red [LB.o];

Genuine Rose (hue) [LK];

Hostaperm® Red [KP.p];

Lefranc Crimson [LB.o];

Luxury Red [MA.o(HD)];

Madder Red (hue) [SCH];

Magenta [BX.o.w | DV | DB.o | SE.o | SQ.a];

Matisse Rose Madder [MT];

Mauve [LK];

Monastral Red;

Monastral Violet;

Permanent Carmine [SCH.w];

Permanent Magenta [AS | DR.o.w | HO.w | PF.w | RT| SE.w | SH.w | WN.o];

Permanent Red Violet [RT.w];

Permanent Red Purple [RT.a];

Permanent Rose [AS | DR.w.t | DV.w | RT | WN.a.g.k.o.wo.w.w.wp.wp(L)];

Permanent Rose Quinacridone [DV.w];

Permanent Violet [LK];

Permanent Violet Medium [RT.o];

Pigment Violet 19;

Phthalo Crimson [GR.w?*];

Phthalo Red [GR.w?*];

Phthalo Red Rose [GR.o.wo?*];

Primary Magenta [ | RT.a.wo];

Primary Red [LB.o | SE.a.os.p ];

Primary Red - Magenta [MA.a.o.w.w];

Pink Quinacridone;

Process Magenta [WN.a];

Purple [MR.o | LK];

Purple Lake [WNd];

Quinacridone 195 [GU];

Quinacridone Alizarin Crimson [DV.o.w];

Quinacridone Blue Violet [LQ.a];

Quinacridone Carmine [DV.w];

Quinacridone Crimson [LQ.a];

Quinacridone Garnet [CH];

Quinacridone Magenta [CH | DR | | HO.w | RF.e | WN];

Quinacridone Magenta (Rose Violet) [HO.w];

Quinacridone Permanent Rose [DV.w];

Quinacridone Purple [OH.a];

Quinacridone Red [GEN | CAS.k | CL | DB.a.w | DS.a.i.o.w | DV.k | GB.o | | GR.o.w.wo | GU | HO.w.wo | KA.o.p | MA.o(artis) | MW.o | RF.e | RGH.o.p | SCH.a | SE.a | SQ.a | | UT.a.o.w | WL.o];

Quinacridone Red Violet [ | RGH.o.p];

Quinacridone Rose [DB.w | DS.a.o.w | GR.w | LK | MA.o(artis).p | MG.a.g.o.w | RT.a.a.o.o.w | SQ.a | UT.o];

Quinacridone Rose Deep [DV.w | OH.a];

Quinacridone Rose Light [OH.a];

Quinacridone Rose Red [GU];

Quinacridone Violet [GEN | CAS.k | CL | DR.a | DS.a.i.o.p.w |DV.k.w | GB.o | | GU | HO.wo | KA.o.p | MG.a.g.o.w | MW.o | PF | RGH.o.p | SCH.a.g.p.w | SI.p | SQ.a | | UT.a.o.w | WL.o.p];

Quinacridone Violet B;

Quinacridone Violet Deep [RGH.o];

Quindo® Pink D [KP.p];

Quindo® Red R 6713 [KP.p];

Quindo® Violet;

Red Rose [DV];

Red Rose Deep [];

Red Rose Deep (Quinacridone) [DV.a.o.w];

Red Violet [CR.a(jo) | HO | JO.a | PF.w];

Rose [RT];

Rose Doré (hue) [AS];

Rose Doré (Quinacridone) [DV.w];

Rose Lake [BX.o.w | MA.o.w.w];

Rose Madder (hue) [AS | DV.o];

Rose Madder Lake (hue) [SE.t]

Rose Madder (Quinacridone) [DV.o];

Rose Pale Lake [BX.w];

Rose Permanent [BX.o.w

MW.wo ];

Rose Violet [HO.o.];

Rouge Primaire [LB.o];

Rowney Rose [DR.o];

Rowney Red Violet [DR.o];

Royal Purple Lake [OH];

Ruby Red [LB.av.o | SCH.w];

Scheveningen Rose Deep [OH.o.w];

Scheveningen Violet [OH.o.w];

Solid Madder (hue) [PF];

Spectrum Crimson [AS];

Thalo Crimson [GR.w];

Thalo Red [GR.w];

Thalo Red Rose [GR.o.wo];

Thio Violet [AS];

Trans Quin Red Yellow [GU];

Trans Quin Yellow Shade;

Transparent Quinacridone Red [GO.a.ab];

Violet [DR.o];






(Ref:LBNL Pigment Database Spectral radiative properties);

(Ref: Monastral Red at;




CAS 1047-16-1

Bright to deep blueish to reddish violet

†Dulls, Fades, Hue shift towards blue



8;8;8 (CR)

(guerra paint)

7-8; 7; 7
(Sun Chemical)





* The Dick Blick site has the "Thalo" Grumbacher Pre-Tested Oils labeled "Phthalo", to my knowledge Grumbacher has always used the term "Thalo" in their line.


Dioxazine Violet

Aubergine Violet [SI.p];

Antique Violet [HO.w(ant)];

Aubergine Violet;

Blue Violet [SE.os | SCH.p];

Brilliant violet [SCH];

Calbizol Violet;

Carbazole Dioxazine;

Carbazole Violet [GEN | BR | CL | DS.a.i.o.w | | RGH.o.p];

Carbazole Violet (dioxanine) [KA.p];

Chromothal Violet;

C.I. Pigment Violet 23;

Cobalt Violet Hue [MR.o | LK];

Da Vinci Violet [DV.w];

Deep Oriental Violet [PF];

Deep Violet [CH | DR.a.a(s3hb).a(s3mb) |];

Diox Purple [CR];

Dioxide Purple [CR | JO.a];

Dioxacine Violet [MR.o];

Dioxanine Violet [KA.o];

Dioxazine Mauve [BX.o.w | OH.o.w];

Dioxazine Purple [GEN | CR.a(jo) | DB.a.o.w | | GB.o.o | | GR.o.o.wo | JO.a | LQ.a | MGd | MT | MW.o.wo | PF.o | SE.a | | UT.a.o.w | WN.a.k..wo];

Dioxazine Violet [ CAS.k | DB.a | GU | HO.wo | LK | OH.a | SE.o | SQ.a | TA.a | WN.w];

Dioxazine Violet Deep [LA.a];

Econo Dioxazine Violet [GU];

Egypt Violet [LB.av]

Egypte Violet [LB.o];

Egyptian Violet [LB.o | RF.e | WL.o];

Fragonard Violet [PF.w];

Flinders Blue Violet [AS];

Game Over Purple [MA.o(HD)];


Mauve [DR.w | GR.w | SQ.a | SCH.w];

Mauve (Dioxazine Purple) [GR];

Opaque Violet [];

Oriental Violet Deep [PF.o];

Permanent Mauve [DR.o.o.];

Permanent Violet [HO.o.w | MA.p | SCH | UT];

Permanent Violet Blueish [MA.o.w.w];

Pigment Violet 23;

Pigment Violet 23 (blue shade);

Pigment Violet 23 (red shade);

Proprietary Purple (Dioxazine Purple) [GRd];


Studio Violet [KP.p];

Translucent Violet [SCH.o(Mus)];

Transparent Garnet [HO.o];

Transparent Dioxazine Purple[GO.ab];

Transparent Violet [HO.o];

Violet [DR.a | | MA.a | SCH.a.g];

Violet Bleu [LB.o];

Violet (Blue Shade) [LB.o];

Violet Dark [SCH.o];

Violet Lake [MA.o];

Violet Permanent [PF.w];

Winsor Violet [WN.a.a.g.w];

Winsor Violet (Dioxazine) [WN.o.w.wp.wp(L)]




LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Dioxazine Purple;


CAS 6358-30-1

Deep dark blue or red shade violet




(guerra paint)

8; 7; 7
(Sun Chemical)





*? ASTM gives light fastness ratings for the red shade of Dioxazine as fair III and the blue shade as poor IV.
Most Paint manufactueres give it at least a good light fastness rating.

In tests on watercolor paints, Bruce MacEvoy of gives this pigment a II, with a wide variation between brands (Ref Guerra paint & Pigment rate their water dispersion as a blue wool scale of 8 in mass tone and 7-8 in tints which is clearly in the excellent category.
It stands to reason that source, manufacturing process or impurities play a role in the light fastness of this pigment. Different mediums or binders may also give different results. I would suggest making your own tests on the formulation or brand of artist paint you have.


Pigment Violet 25

C.I. Pigment Violet 25;

Pigment Violet 25;

Suimei Fast Violet B




CAS 6358-46-9

Bright violet







Permanent Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 27;

Permanent Violet;

Pigment Violet 27;

Methyl Violet;

Violet Toner


Triphenylmethane Copper Ferrocyanide Salt;


CAS 12237-62-6








Perylene Violet


Anthraquinone Violet [GU];

C.I. Pigment Violet 29;

Fast Bordeaux;

Luprafil Violet;

Palamid Violet;

Perrindo Violet [GU];

Perylene Violet [DS.w | WN.a.g.w.w.wp];

Pigment Violet 29;

Sunfast Violet;







CAS 81-33-4

Dark dull red purple



(guerra paint)





Isoviolanthrone Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 31;

Isoviolanthrone Violet;

Pigment Violet 31;

Polysolve Brilliant Violet;

Vat Violet 1


Isoviolanthrone Dichloro derivative;


CAS 1324-55-6

Bluish violet





May be out of production


Benzimiazolone Violet

Benzimiazolone Violet;

Bordeaux [DS.o.w];

C.I. Pigment Violet 32;

Novoperm Bordeaux HF3R;

Pigment Violet 32





CAS 12225-08-0

Bluish red or violet


† Darkens





* apparently has only fair lightfastness with tints in alkyd-melamine paints, but very good (blue scale 7 of 8) in inks (watercolors?) (Ref: p.366, Industrial organic pigments, By Willy Herbst, Klaus Hunger, Gerhard Wilker)


Indanthrene Violet

Bayeux Violet;

C.I. Pigment Violet 36;

C.I. Vat Violet 2;

Indanthrene Violet;

Indanthrene Brilliant Violet RR;

Pigment Violet 36;


Thioindigo red;

Thioindigo red violet;

Thio Violet [GU];

Vat violet 2




Indigoid based ;

Red Shade Violet




(guerra paint)





Dioxazine Violet

Blue Violet [HO.wo];

Chromothal Violet;

C.I. Pigment Violet 37;

Dioxazine Purple [MG.a.g.o.w];

Dioxazine Violet [KP.p];

Dioxazine Violet Red Shade [GU];

Pigment Violet 37




CAS 57971-98-9

Red and blue shades of dark deep purple.; †Fades






Said to be more lightfast than PV23 in artist's paints (handprint Ref); (Dick Blick Ref;




Crystal Violet

Blue Violet [SE.w];

C.I. Pigment Violet 39;

Crystal Violet;

Pigment Violet 39;

Triphenylmethane Violet;


Triphenylmethane Phosphomolybdic salt;


CAS 64070-98-0;

CAS 467-63-0;

CAS 67953-39-3;

CAS 68477-21-4

Bright Violet.; †Dulls, Darkens, Fades





* Several studies have linked long-term exposure to Crystal Violet with cancer (Ref)


Quinacridone Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 42;

Magenta [SCH.w];

Monastral Maroon B;

Pigment Violet 42;

Quinacridone Maroon;

Quinacridone Pink [DS.a.o.w];

Quinacridone Pink Madder [GU];

Quinacridone Rose Madder [GU];

Royal Purper Lake [OH.o.w];

Royal Purple Lake [OH.o.w];

Trans Quin Blue Shade;

Trans Quin Red Blue [GU];



Dull reddish violet



(guerra paint)




PV 44

Pigment Violet 44

C.I. Pigment Violet 44;

Pigment Violet 44;

Symuler Fast Violet 4142




CAS 87209-55-0

Mid shade Violet







Cobalt Lithium Violet Phosphate

C.I. Pigment Violet 47;

Cobalt Violet [HO.o.wo];

Cobalt Violet Light [HO.w | KP.p];

Cobalt Lithium Violet Phosphate;

Pigment Raspberry PK 5031;

Pigment Violet 47



Cobalt lithium violet phosphate;

Made by the calcination of Cobalt (II) Oxide, Lithium (I) Oxide, and Phosphorus (V) Oxide to give a crystalline phosphate with the constitution CoLiPO4.


CPMA 8-12-1


CAS 68610-13-9

Red shade Violet







Cobalt Magnesium Borate

C.I. Pigment Violet 48;

Cobalt Magnesium Borate;

Cobalt Magnesium Red-Blue Borate;

Pigment Violet 48;




Cobalt magnesium red-blue borate;

Obtained from high temperature calcination of a mixture with varied amounts of Cobalt (II) Oxide, Magnesium (II) Oxide, and Boron (III) Oxide to make a ionic and homogeneous intertwined crystalline borate;


How Cobalt Violet is made at


CPMA 2-02-1 (4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments)


CAS 68608-93-5

Light mid shade to reddish Violet







Cobalt Pale Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 49;

Cobalt Red Violet [LB.o];

Cobalt Violet [DS.w];

Cobalt Violet Brilliant;

Cobalt Violet Brilliant Light [KP.p];

Cobalt Pale Violet;

Cobalt Violet Light [DS.o | GB.o | RF.e | SV | UTd | WL.o.o(SF)];

Cobalt Violet Light (Reddish) [WL.o.p];

Caprice Violet No.102;

Pigment Violet 49;

SF Cobalt Violet Light [WL.o.o(SF)];


Cobalt ammonium phosphate


How Cobalt Violet is made at


CAS 14590-13-7

Light reddish to Deep blue violet







Pigment Violet 50

C.I. Pigment Violet 59;

Fast Violet B;

Pigment Violet 50




CAS 76233-81-3

Bright bluish violet







Quinacridone Purple

C.I. Pigment Violet 55;

Pigment Violet 55;

Quinacridone Purple [DS.w];

Quindo® Violet 55;



A "solid solution" formed from the mixing of 2,9-dimethoxyquinacridone and 2,9-dichloroquinacridone resulting in a unique crystal form. (Ref);


Bluish violet to violet blue



7-8; 7; 7
(Sun Chemical)



Claimed to be superior to Quinacridone Violet PV 19 (Ref Coating Tech June 2010, pg 48); The hue is said to be closer to carbazole violet (PV 23) than PV 19 and PV 29 (Ref)




MayaCrom Violet V2001F

C.I. Pigment Violet 58;

MayaCrom Violet V2001F;

Mayan Violet [DS.w*];

Pigment Violet 58


Patented Organic/Inorganic hybred based on the chemistry of Mayan Blue






"evolved from work done at the University of Texas-El Paso to reconstruct the unique vibrant blue color developed by the Maya civilization more than 1000 years ago, using an inorganic and organic component to produce a highly stable hybrid pigment."

- TOR Minerals International Press release, (Ref),;

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor site.


Pigment Violet 171

C.I. Pigment Violet 171;

Azoic Plum Violet [GU];

Pigment Violet 171



Deep red violet






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Jump to : Supplier\Manufacturer Codes  |  Binder/Medium Codes


1 = opaque
4 = trans.


I = excel.


Color Index Generic Name:
  Key Top ^ Page Top^
This is the C.I. Generic Name (abbreviated) given by the ASTM and Colour Index International (CII) for that pigment. The first 2 or 3 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.

Natural Dye and Solvent Pigments
These are naturally occurring organic pigments and dyes. With a few exceptions, most are plant or animal extracts or dyes that need to be fixed to a substrate to become pigments (i.e. Madder Lake). A few are organic natural earths such as Cassel earth (Van Dyke Brown). They are designated with C.I. Generic name of which consists of the usage class "Natural" and basic hue, followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Natural Brown 8). Natural pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class N + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. NBr 8)
Pigments can be organic or Inorganic. Most modern pigments are given this usage designation by the Color Index. They can be completely synthetic, naturally occurring minerals, or lakes based on the synthetic derivatives of natural dyes. Pigments are designated with C.I. Generic name which consists of the usage class "Pigment" and the basic hue followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Pigment Red 106, Cadmium Red). The pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class P + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. PR83 for Pigment Red 83)


NY = Natural Yellow;
NO = Natural Orange;
NR = Natural Red;
NV = Natural Violet;
NB = Natural Blue;
NG = Natural Green;
NBr = Natural Brown;
NBk = Natural Black;
NW = Natural White;



PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal


The CI (Color Index) Common Pigment Name:   Key Top ^ Page Top^
In this database the common name is the name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997) by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials.

When the Colour Index (3rd edition) has not specified a name, I have used the name that the first manufacturer, inventor or original patent holder has given that pigment. In the case of ancient pigments, historic pigments, minerals or other odd pigments, I have used the most commonly used traditional historic, mineral or chemical name as determined by my research.

Common, Historic and Marketing Names:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any particular name, but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used in the past according to historic pigment books & references, paint sales literature, and pigment manufacturers references. They have been collected (in order of importance) from

1.) Paint manufacturers, pigment manufacturers and/or other pigment supplier literature;

2.) Various web sites in particular, Dick Blick Artist Supply,, Kremer Pigments, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, and along with internet forums on art and painting, web sites of paint manufacturers, paint suppliers, chemical manufactures and pigment manufacturers;.

3.) The Color Index, Third edition (published by the Colour Index International, 1997);

4.) Historical books on pigments, oil painting, watercolor painting and other art forms (see Free Art e-Books);

5.) Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works);

6.) Various dictionaries and encyclopedias (both historic and contemporary).


When a manufacturer has has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name and has not clearly indicated it to be a hue or substitute, I have indicated it with the "(hue)"* in parenthesis. For example calling\naming a paint made with Phthalocyanine Blue as "Azure", "Smalt" or "Cobalt Blue".

*In order to stay within ASTM specification D 4302-05, manufactures are encouraged to use the word "hue" when the paint or pigment marketing name is not the real name of a paint or a pigment. Substitute and tone could be also considered acceptable means of indicating a hue substitute for the actual color. However, the ASTM specifications are usually voluntary and there is little means to enforce them. Also because of language differences, changes in the paint or pigments common identification because of contemporary usage (often perpetrated by manufacturer's incorrect color marketing names), and last but not least - the sheer multitude of historically used paint names for any given paint\pigment, it's nearly impossible to prove or say a manufacturer of art materials is being purposely deceptive.


C.I. Constitution Number or Colour Index Constitution Number (chemical composition):   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the chemical constitution numbers given that pigment by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. Each of the numbers in the "Colour Index Constitution Number" has a specific chemical or compositional meaning; for more information see the Colour Index Number Chart or go to the Color Index International and ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials web sites (these links open in a new window)..

Chemical Composition:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. I have also included CAS numbers, when I can fine them. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways and can also give an indication of the manufacture method. Very often a pigment can be a group of related compounds rather than one specific chemical. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses, but only basic information that should help you to find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.
Adulterants, extenders and other additives may be added to artistic paints to improve the paint rheology, transparency, and\or drying time. Often inert pigments, extenders and fillers are added to the color pigments in student grade paints or to modify paint pigments with overly strong tinting strength, i.e. the Phthalocyanine Blues and Greens.
These extra ingredients are rarely listed of the label.

Color Description:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain English. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. This range in hues can be due to many things such as different manufacturing processes, exact chemical composition and crystal shape. In most cases, i have not used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this (such as the Munsell system), but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and Colourists, third edition 1997), I have used that description, when there is no color hue description in the Color Index, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.

† = Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage. These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.

Fades = Becomes more Transparent
Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains relative transparency or opaque character;
Whitens = Becomes lighter towards white and more opaque;
Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;
Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral but maintains the relative tone;  
Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;  
Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color

Opacity - Transparency:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This designation is only a general reference to the most common encountered opacity or transparency inherit to the pigment. In paints, the transparency of a pigment can change due to what is used as the painting medium or binder (i.e., oil color, watercolor, encaustic, acrylic, etc.). There are many pigments that are opaque in watercolor but transparent or semi-transparent in oil paints. The transparency of a paint or pigment can often be manipulated by the manufacturing process for a particular purpose. The addition of inert pigments or other modifiers can also change the perceived transparency of a paint formulation or pigment.
When available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. When the Color Index description is unavailable i have arrived at a general figure by manufacturer literature or personal experience. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.
1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent

Light Fastness Rating:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

The light fastness rating can only be a general guide, when available, i have used the ASTM rating or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, and I believe will no longer be rating pigments. For that reason the rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale is 8, in this database lightfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. Very often, pigments in tints are less light fast and this should be taken into account when determining if a pigment or paint will meet your needs. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following: (ASTM D4303 - 10, Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials, or ASTM D01.57, the Subcommittee on Artists' Materials doc here, opens new window); or this ( Thread - opens new window). Blue Wool Scale will be given when known, but be aware that these may be from tests on a single formulation, and may not be the same for all brands or binders.
I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor (may last many years in museum conditions, but should be used with caution for permanent works of art)
IV = Fugitive/Very Poor


BWS = Blue wool scale

7-8 = Excellent,
6 = Very Good,
= Fair (Impermanent),
2-3 Poor (fugitive),
= Very Poor (fugitive)*

*When known, blue wool scale ratings will be given for tints in the following format: Full;1/2 tint/;1/4 tint (i.e. Cadmium Red would be 8;8;8 with excellent light fastness in all tints). Note: these may from tests on a single formulation or pigment brand, and may not be valid for other brands or binders.


Oil Absorption: is given in g/100g or grams of oil per 100 grams of pigment   Key Top ^ Page Top^
or as H, M, L (see below)

The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works). The higher the oil absorption, generally, the longer it will take to dry when used in oil painting. The addition of driers, siccatives, retardants and other additives can effect the drying time of any specific formulation, or they can be added by the artist to speed up or slow down the drying of oil paints. In some literature the oil absorption rate is given as ml/100g, although not technically the same as g/100g, for the purposes of this database they are close enough.

Depending on the specifications i have available I may also use the following designations:
H = High;   - These pigments absorb a lot of oil.
M = Medium;    - Average drying or cure rate
L = Low;    - Usually very fast driers

Toxicity:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

Under this heading will be a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, art books and art reference works (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), MSDS sheets, the EPA manual: Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans (full PDF here), The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI), The Health and the Arts Program - Great Lakes Centers at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH), The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works has a collection of articles on art safety, The Consumer Product Safety Commission's Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB) and Art Materials Business Guidance

All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but, if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous pigments can be used safely. Very few pigments used in the arts are edible, and even so called "Food Colors" are not meant to be used in large quantities and may have unknown side effects or allergic reactions.

WARNING: Always use a dust mask when working with any dry pigments. Work in a separate area of your studio away from children, pets or other living things. Do not smoke, eat or drink around any art materials. Dispose of all waste materials in an environmentally safe way.

A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible hazard if carelessly handled, ingested in large amounts or over long periods of time;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling toxic substances; 
D = Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with these pigments (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window); or the PDF - Booklet Safe Handling of Colour Pigments Copyright © 1995: BCMA, EPSOM, ETAD, VdMI - link from VdMI

The Side Notes Column:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. Please remember that they are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided for further info.


(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.

(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the reference source of the information that I have given, or just a link to more detailed information.

? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable references, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.

Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:*****   Key Top ^ Page Top^
Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
The manufacturer code is to indicate companies that make or supply paints or pigments using the particular pigment. Only those products that are single pigments will be indicated in this database. In a few cases, the Color Index International has listed a mixture of pigments or chemicals under a single color index pigment name or code, and these will also be designated as if they were a single pigment. The codes next to the pigments in above Color of Art Database may take you off sight where you can find more info or even purchase, if you so desire. These codes are not part of any standard, but were made up by me for this database, with purpose of making them as short as possible.
The links below next to the manufacturer code below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window.

DG = Daniel Green (discontinued?)

EP = Earth Pigments

GB = Gamblin

GEN = Common Generic term

GO = Golden

GR = Grumbacher

GU = Guerra Paint & Pigment

HO = Holbien

JO = Jo Sonja

KA = Kama Pigments

KP = Kremer Pigmente  (USA site)

Paint medium or binder code:  Key Top ^ Page Top^

Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links.

d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All other art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.

a = Acrylic Paint, heavy body;

ab = Acrylic Airbrush colors;

ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions;

af = Fluid Acrylics;

ag = Matte Acrylic or Acrylic Gouache;

ao = open acrylics or slow drying

k = Alkyd paints;

c = Casein or milk paint;

d = Discontinued

e = Encaustic paints;

g = Traditional water color Gouache;

i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);

o = Oil Paint;

p = Dry Pigment;

t = Artist Professional Tempera or Egg Tempera;

w = Watercolor Paint in tubes;

wp = Watercolor Pan; wp = 1/2 pan, wp(f) = full pan, wp(L) = large pan

wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.


am = Acrylic medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

om = Oil painting Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

wm = Watercolor Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

GEN = Where there is a generally accepted common historic name associated with a pigment, I have used "GEN" to denote the generic or common historical name of a particular pigment.

Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.


©2013 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.

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Artist Reference Resources:

Historical Artist and Pigment Reference Sources:  
This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the
Free Art Books Page.

  1. The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish,
    By Alvah Horton Sabin, Published by J. Wiley & Sons, 1904
  2. The Painters' Encyclopaedia,
    By Franklin B. Gardner, Published by M.T. Richardson, 1887
  3. The Science of Painting,
    By Jehan Georges Vibert, Published by P. Young, 1892
  4. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Cennino Cennini, Giuseppe Tambroni, Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Published by Lumley, 1844
  5. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Leonardo Da Vinci, John Francis Rigaud, Published by J.B. Nichols and Son 1835
  6. The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini,
    By Cennino Cennini, Cennini, Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Translated by Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Published by G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1899
  7. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,
    By Arthur Herbert Church, Published by Seeley, 1901
  8. A Handbook for Painters and Art Students on the Character and Use of Colours,
    By William J. Muckley, Published by Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1880
  9. The Household Cyclopedia,
    By Henry Hartshorne 1881
  10. The Chemistry of Pigments,
    By Ernest John Parry, John Henry Coste, Published by Scott, Greenwood, 1902
  11. Facts about Processes, Pigments and Vehicles: A Manual for Art Student,
    By Arthur Pillans Laurie, Published by Macmillan, 1895
  12. The Manufacture Of Earth Colours:
  13. Materials for Permanent Painting,
    By Maximilian Toch 1911


Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources:

  1. The Artist’s Handbook,
    by Pip Seymour, Arcturus Publishing (September 16, 2003)
  2. The Artist's Handbook, Revised Edition,
    Ray Smith; DK Publishing 2003
  3. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques,
    Third edition, by Ralph Mayer; Viking Press 1979
  4. Artists' Pigments: Volume 1: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Robert L. Feller
  5. Artists' Pigments: Volume 2: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Ashok Roy (Oct 2, 1993)
  6. Artists' Pigments: Volume 3: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (Oct 1997)
  7. Artists' Pigments: Volume 4: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Barbara Berrie (Jun 7, 2007)
  8. Collins Artist's Colour Manual,
    Simon Jennings; HarperCollins Publishers 2003
  9. Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes,
    The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition 1998
  10. A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques,
    Ralph Mayer, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969
  11. The Materials and Techniques of Painting,
    by Jonathan Stephenson (May 1993)
  12. The Painter's Handbook,
    Mark David Gottsegen; Watson-Guptill Publications 1993
  13. Painting Materials A Short Encyclopaedia,
    by Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout; Dover Publications 1966
  14. Pigment Compendium,
    by Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall; Butterworth Heinemann 2004



Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials:

  1. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC):

    National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.

  2. AMIEN:
    a resource for artists dedicated to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials
  3. Blick Art Materials;
    has done a extremely thorough job of indicating the pigments used in most of the paints they sell, making the Dick Blick art supply website much more than just a store to purchase paint and art supplies.
    Dick Blick also has the MSDS sheets
    for of most of the products they sell , making the Blick site a valuable resource for toxicity info and the health and safety of artist materials.
    a large and thorough site on pigments, in Finnish
  5. Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), The Materials Database,
    developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), to be a more comprehensive and well-rounded encyclopedic resource for the art conservation and historic preservation fields. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials.
  6. Conservation OnLine (CoOL):
    A freely accessible platform to generate and disseminate vital resources for those working to preserve cultural heritage worldwide.
  7. The Handprint,com;
    site by Bruce MacEvoy has loads of excellent information on watercolor pigments and Has a excellent color wheel showing where the actual pigments are in color space. Truly an awesome site, the site is directed at watercolors, but is a good general reference for any paints or pigments.
    Great pigment sight that even includes step by step instructions for making you own pigments.
  9. The Real Color Wheel;
    by Don Jusko is also a great color site.
  10. Studiomara;
    has a fantastic pigment reference database sorted by the marketing paint color name and brand.
  11. Health and Safety in the Arts;
    A Searchable Database of Health & Safety Information for Artists
  12. Household Products Database;
    Health and safety information on household products from the US Department of Health and Human Services
  13. Natural Pigments:
    One of the best sources of rare natural and historical pigments and information.
  14. Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; by Julie C. Sparks, is part of The Painted Word Site. Wonderful stuff.
  15. By Tony Johansen, Great Paint making site with all types of useful pigment and binder information for the artist.
  16.; Paint & Coatings Indusry
        2010 Additives Handbook by Darlene Brezinski, Dr. Joseph V. Koleske, Robert Springate, June 4, 2010;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2
  17. Dick Blick Artist Supply:
    Full Range of art supplies at discount prices and has pigment info on most paints they sell
  18. Kremer Pigmente EuropeKremer Pigments USA site;
    Has a huge amount of pigments and information.
  19. Earth Pigments:
    Specializes in earth pigments.
  20. Guerra Paint and Pigments:
    Many rare and out of production Pigments mostly in aqueous dispersions
  21. Sinopia:
    Lots of Pigments & info

Health and Safety in the Arts References and Info:

  1. Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB)
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  2. Art Materials Business Guidance
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  3. Art Safety
    Environmental Protection, Health & Safety, California State University at Monterey Bay
  4. Artist Safety
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University
  5. Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans
    U. S. Environment Protection Agency
  6. Exposing Ourselves to Art (PDF, 6.83 MB)
    Scott Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 3, March 1997
  7. Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation
    CoOL – Conservation Online, Stanford University Libraries
  8. Health and Safety Guides and Publications
    American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work
  9. Art Safety
    Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Connecticut College
  10. Health and the Arts Program
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  11. Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  12. Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
    New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
  13. Studio Safety
    Gamblin Artists Colors




*other ASTM specifications used the the labeling of artists materials are:


D4236-94(2011) Standard Practice for Labeling Art Materials for Chronic Health Hazards

D4302-05(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Oil, Resin-Oil, and Alkyd Paints

D4303-10 Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials

D4838-88(2010) Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Tinting Strength of Chromatic Paints

D4941-06(2010) Standard Practice for Preparing Drawdowns of Artists' Paste Paints

D5067-05(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Watercolor Paints

D5098-05a(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Acrylic Dispersion Paints

D5383-02(2010) Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists

D5398-97(2010) Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by the User

D5517-07 Standard Test Method for Determining Extractability of Metals from Art Materials
See also WK41263 proposed revision

D5724-06(2010) Standard Specification for Gouache Paints

D6801-07 Standard Test Method for Measuring Maximum Spontaneous Heating Temperature of Art and Other Materials

D6901-06 Standard Specification for Artists' Colored Pencils
See also WK27266 proposed revision

D7354-11 Standard Guide for Artists’ Paint Waste Disposal in Private, Non-Commercial Settings

D7355-10 Standard Guide for Artists' Paint Waste Disposal in Smaller Commercial or Educational Settings

D7733-12 Standard Specification for Acrylic Dispersion Ground

WK28388 New Specification for Traditional Artists Watercolor Paints
WK37409 New Test Method for Measuring Aspiration Potential of Aerosol Products
WK37916 New Specification for Standard Specification for Artists Pastels


I hope you you have found the Pigment Database useful info for oil painting and watercolor painting, acrylic painting or indeed any painting medium; I have tried to make this a good resource for the fine arts, that has the important information on toxicity of paint and art materials including the hazards of some craft materials used by decorators, interior designers, illustration and graphic designer;


© 2013 by David Myers all rights reserved





This page of the Color of Art Pigment Database was designed for C.I. Pigment Red.

CI Pigment Red is indicated with the pigment code "Pigment Red" followed by the color index international's pigment identification code number or pigment ID number. The full color index name or generic pigment name is usually shortened to the Color Index code which for pigment Red is "PR" plus the color index # (after the "PR" pigment Red code designation there is the Color index identifying number code for the specific pigment, i.e. "PR 83" or "PR 101"). All artist paints and pigments that are ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials) and ASTM D4236 - 94* compliant that are sold in the United States must have the pigment identification number or generic chemical names of the Red pigments that were used to make the Red paints or dry pigments (either powdered pigments or in the commonly found "pigment dispersions") and should be have the generic pigment name printed on the paint label. The "Red oil paint" tube or "Red oil color" paint label, along with the label on tubes of acrylic paints, and on the label on tubes of watercolor even when found as pans, half-pans or dry cakes and often sold as a complete color palette or "watercolor set", will have the pigment or pigments index name on the label, or printed directly on the paint tube.

This color database is a also a great pigment reference made for DIY artist's and artisans that make their own paints with raw pigments and grind or mull the pigments into homemade paints giving them complete control over the paints grind, texture, and color. Making your own paints (paint making) by mulling the pigment in with a binding medium can be a rewarding and fun creative experience. The artist is involved in the process of creation, from the beginning with only the raw dry pigments and proceeding on to grinding pigments with a binding media (usually shortened to "binder"). For making oil paints, linseed oil is the most common binder (or medium). Walnut oil is also common oil used in making oil colors in the art studio and is less yellowing than linseed oil, There are other less common drying oils and some new alkyd resins the are sometimes used in making oil colors in the studio. Making (or grinding) watercolor paint is also fun and easy. The most common formula for making homemade watercolors is mostly water with some dissolved gum arabic (the glue that holds the paint together when dry). Honey and glycerin are common additives used in varying proportions to adjust the drying time and re-wetability of the dried watercolor. See the Art is Creation Recipe page for more info and paint making or grinding medium recipes. Egg-oil tempera and other media can be made in the art studio by DIY artists and it is creative and fun to make your very own paints. It is a very rewarded creative experience to grinding (mulling) your own paints and then finally making a painting or work of art, all entirely created by the artist themselves from start to finish.

The Art is Creation, Color of Art Pigment Database Reference has the resources and info on pigments used for artist paint, student paints, Oil color including:

  • Oil Paints
  • Watercolors
  • Acrylic Paint
  • Pigments used in making paint
  • Dry Pigments and Powders
  • Aqueous Pigment Dispersions
  • Fluid Acrylics
  • Airbrush Paint
  • Acrylic Gouache
  • Matte Acrylic Paints
  • Acrylic Vinyl
  • Acyclic paint or Alkyd Oils
  • Casein or Milk Paint
  • Encaustic painting
  • Gouache
  • Printing Inks or Pigmented Drawing inks
  • Oil sticks or Oil Bars
  • Oil Base Pigment Stick
  • Tempera or Egg Tempera
  • Watercolor Sticks
  • Watercolor Pigment Sticks or Bars
  • Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint