PBr Brown Pigments The Color of Art Pigment Database: Pigment Brown, PBr

Artist's Paint and Pigments Reference: Color Index Names, Color index Number and Pigment Chemical Composition

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PBr - Pigment Brown Brown Pigments
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Jump to CI Pigment Brown Number:
NBk 6*, NBr 3, NBr 6, NBr 7, NBr 8, NBr 9, NBr 11,
PBr 1, PBr 6, PBr 7, PBr 8, PBr 9, PBr 10, PBr 11, PBr 12, PBr 22, PBr 23, PBr 24, PBr 25, PBr 27, PBr 29, PBr 30, PBr 31, PBr 33, PBr 34, PBr 35, PBr 37, PBr 39, PBr 40, PBr 41, PBr 42; PBr 43, PBr 44, PBr 45, PBr 46,
Augite; Bronzite; Egyptian Mummy; Goethite; Hematite; Manganous Chromate; Sicklerite; Siderite; Tigers Eye

Where applicable, you can click on the artist paint or pigment company code found in the "Common Historic and Marketing Name Column" next to the pigments name. The links will take off site where you can find more specific paint, binder, and pigment properties, including MSDS sheets or a retailer that stocks that brand of paint or pigment. Just hit your back button to return. See the Key at the bottom of any page for the artist media or binder company codes and links to the brands websites. NOTE: d in italics indicates a discontinued paint or pigment, all other medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment/paint is in the student grade, not the "artist's" professional premium paint. See the Key (at the bottom of the page) for artist media and binder codes.


Historic and Natural Earth Brown Pigments Historic Brown Pigments and Mineral Pigments without Color Index Names
Historic Brown Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Brown  |  CI Pigment Brown  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

N/A

Augite

Augite;

Augite Crimson Shade from Armenia [SI.p];

Augite Purple;

Augite Violet from Armenia [SI.p];

N/A

Silicate mineral composed of varying amounts of aluminum,iron ,calcium, magnesium, and sodium {Ref), (Ref)

Deep Green to Deep Violet Brown

4

I

-

A

-

N/A

Bronzite

Bronzite;

Bronzite Genuine* [DS.w];

Burnt Bronzite Genuine* [DS.w];

N/A

"A ferriferous variety of enstatite" -Wikipedia;

(Ref) from Mindat.org

Light Metalic Red Brown; Copper Bronze

4

I

-

A

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.

N/A

Egyptian Mummy

Caput Mortuum;

Egyptian Mummy;

Mummy

N/A

The ground up bodies of mummies, containing asphaltum and embalming resins*

Dark Dull violet Brown

4

III

-

A

* I'm skeptical as to whether this color was really mummies or just rumors. Usually imitated with asphaltum or earth brown pigments.

N/A

Goethite

Brown Ochre Goethite [DV.o];

Dark Goethite [DV.o];

Goethite**;

Goethite - Brown Ochre [DS.w];

Goethite Genuine [DV.o];

Iron Oxide Brown;

Iron Oxide Hydroxide;

Pigment Brown 6;

Pigment Black 11;

Pigment Yellow 43;

Van Dyke Brown [MGd]

77491

77492

77499

Inorganic; Natural and/or synthetic Feric oxide and Ferroso-ferric hydroxide;

CAS 52357-70-7

Brown to dull red to black*

1-3

I

28-43

A

* Oil paints and watercolors using PBr6 and PBr 7 exist in almost any shade of yellow, orange, red and violet brown to green brown to black.

 

** {Ref at Mindat.org}

N/A

Hematite

Bloodstone;

Blue Ridge Violet Hematite [NP.p];

Burnt Hematite [DV.o];

Hematite [DS.o | NP.o.p];

Hematite Burnt Scarlet [DV.o];

Hematite Burnt Scarlet Genuine*[DS.o.w];

Hematite Genuine*[DS.w | DV.o];

HematiteViolet [DV.o];

Hematite Violet Genuine*[DS.w];

Iron Rose;

Pigment Brown 7;

Violet Hematite [NP.o.p] compare with PBr7

N/A

Natural Brown Iron Oxide (Mineral Reference at mindat.org), (Ref wikipedia);

dark reddish to blackish brown

3

I

46

A

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site

N/A

Manganous Chromate

Basic Manganous Chromate;

Manganese Chromate;

Manganous Chromate

77735

Manganese Chromate, Basic Manganous Chromate. Black or red-brown powder of variable composition (Reference: Tables of Properties of Over Fifteen Hundred Common Inorganic Substances, By Wilhelm Segerblom, 1909)

Black to reddish brown

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Sicklerite

Manganese Sicklerite;

Sicklerite [DS.w];

Triphylite

N/A

Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate; Phosphate formed as a result of the alteration of other phosphate minerals in granite pegmatites (Ref);

Mineral: (Ref), (Ref), (Ref)

Dark brown

4

I

-

A

The Daniel Smith watercolor paint appears to be the only way this mineral was ever used as a pigment. May act as a drier in oil paint due to it's high Manganese content.

N/A

Siderite

Aerosiderite;

Bemmelenite;

Chalybite;

Eisenpath;

Fer Carbonaté;

Gyrite;

Iron Spar;

Junckérite;

Pelosiderite;

Siderite [NP.p];

Sparry Iron;

Spatformig Jernmalm;

Spathic Iron;

Spathos eIron;

Thomaîte

N/A

Natural Iron Carbonate

Light yellowish brown to gray to greenish brown to reddish brown

1

I

M

A

-

N/A

Tigers Eye

African Cat's-eye;

Australian Tiger's Eye;

Burnt Tiger Eye;

Burnt Tigers Eye Genuine* [DS.o.w];

Cat's-eye;

Crocidolite;

Golden Tigers Eye;

Marra mamba tiger iron;

Tigereye;

Tiger Eye;

Tigers Eye;

Tigers Eye Genuine* [DS.o.w];

Tiger-Eye TYOUJICHA, No. 12 [KP.p.p];

Tiger iron

N/A

Quartz silicon with yellowish and brown parallel layers, a mixture of Chalcedony and Riebeckite (Ref). The yellow-gold color is due to iron oxides.

Brown with yellowish to red- violet undertone

4

I

L

A

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor site Handprint.com.

Natural Brown Pigments - NBr Natural Brown - Color Index Name: NBr
Historic Brown Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Brown  |  CI Pigment Brown  | KEY |  Page Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and

 

Marketing Names
C.I.

 

Constitution Number

 

Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

NBk6*

Asphaltum

Alfalto (It.);

Antwerp Braun;

Antwerp Brown;

Asfalt (Ned.);

Asfalto (Port.);

Asphalt paint;

Asfalto (Port.,Esp.);

Asfaltos (Gr.);

Asphalte (Fr.);

Asphaltum [KP.p];

Asphaltite;

Bitume (It.);

Bitumen** [ KA.ad.o.p | MA.o(artis) | MR.o];

Bitumen of Judea;

C.I. Natural Black 6;

Brown

Erdpech;

Gilsonite;

Gilsonite (Asphaltum) [NP.p];

Goudron;

Jew's Pitch;

Mineral Pitch;

Natural Black 6;

Pissasphaltum;

Shilajit;

Uintaite;

-

The natural form of a resinous hydrocarbon similar to petroleum asphalt; (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008);

Asphaltum is defined by Child (per 1995) as different from petroleum asphalt. 'Asphaltum' being defined as the naturally occurring material (Nbk6), and the term 'asphalt' meaning those products derived from of coal tar. (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008, p.32);

(Mindat.org Mineral Ref);

(Ref Natural Pigments);

(Ref: The Manufacture of Varnishes and Kindred Industries: Vol. 2, 1908 By Achille Livache);

(Asphaltum Ref at Boston Fine Arts, CAMEO: Conservation & Art Materials Encyclopedia Online);

(Bitumen Ref at Boston Fine Arts, CAMEO: Conservation & Art Materials Encyclopedia Online);

(Ref: Asphaltum: Bitumen - Mineral Pitch - Antwerp Brown - Mummy - Mumie section of The Chemistry of Paints and Painting, By Arthur Herbert Church)
More Info on the free art e-books page.

Dark blackish red-brown with a yellow undertone

4

III?*

N/A

A

Usually substituted with more permanent earth colors or iron oxides in artist paints.;

 

*Although dark brown in color and sometimes confused with PBr6, Asphaltum is Color index Natural Black 6.;

 

?* Unrated by ASTM, Asphaltum is reportedly light fast when used as oil color but has problems with shrinkage and cracking: see Wetcanvas.com Thread (Ref).;

 

Reportedly the oil paint never dries and causes "dripping" (Ref:Color: A Natural History of the Palette, By Victoria Finlay, ©2002, p.104);

 

Highly refined asphaltum may be more stable when used in oilcolors. (Ref: Natural Pigments).

 

** Bitumen is actually a range of compounds described in the Pigment Compendium, 2008 as 'a complex group of synthetic or natural, solid or high viscosity mixtures of hydrocarbons and volatile substances, that include the asphalts'.

In an artistic sense, as a pigment , it most often refers to Asphaltum, but has also been used as a name for humic earths (eg. Cassel Earth, Van Dyke Brown) and lignites. (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008)

NBr3

Catechin

Black Catechu;

Catechin;

Catechou [KP.p];

Catechu [KP.p];

Catechu-Arten;

C.I. Natural Brown 3;

Cutch;

Gambier;

Katha;

Kattha;

Kavari;

Natural Brown 3

75250

Catechinic acid from the left over of katha made from Acacia catechu;

 

CAS 154-23-4 (Hydrate)

CAS 100786-01-4

Brown

4

-

-

A

MSDS

-

NBr6

Ganga

C.I. Natural Brown 6;

Ganga;

Harda;

Natural Brown 6

 

 

Chebulinic Acid; Extracted from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula (Myrobalan);

 

CAS 114921-10-7

Yellow brown

4

-

-

A

-

NBr7

Juglone

Akhnot;

C.I. Natural Brown 7;

Iuglon;

Juglane;

Juglone;

Natural Brown 7;

Natural walnut stain powder [KA.p];

Oil Red BS;

Nucin;

Regianin;

Walnut extract;

Yuglon

 

75500

Extract from the nut-shells, roots, leaves, bark and wood of trees of the Juglandaceae family, usually Black Walnut.; Naphtoquinone;

 

CAS 481-39-0

Dark brown

4

IV

-

A*

Historically used for inks and stains more than artist's paint. Sometimes used as a natural herbicide.

* (Ref)

NBr8

Van Dyke Brown

Bruno Vandyck;

Caledonian Brown;

Cappagh Brown;

Cassel Brown;

Cassel Brown, Van Dyck Brown [KP.p];

Cassel Earth [NP.p];

Cassel's Earth [KA.p];

Cassel Umber;

Caste Earth;

Castle Earth;

C.I. Natural Brown 8;

Coal Brown;

Cologne Brown;

Cologne Earth;

Cologne Umber;

Collens Earth;

Cullen Earth;

Cullens Earth;

Czechia;

Genuine Cassel's Earth [KA.p];

Humic Earth;

Kassel Earth;

Kassel Umber;

Lignite;

Mineral Brown;

Natural Brown 8;

Preto de Frandes;

Rubens' Brown;

Sap Brown;

Spanish Brown;

Terre de Cassel;

Terra di Colonia;

Ulmin Brown;

Van Dyck Braun;

Van Dyck Brown [KP.p];

Van Dyke Brown [GEN, HO.w | NP.p | SH.w | WL.o];

Vandyke brown [HO.w | SH.w];

77727

Lignite;

Brown earth with Peat and Coal residues (Ref), (Ref);

 

Making pigments: Van Dyke Brown***? at webexhibits.org;

 

CAS 72669-22-8

Dull dark earth brown

2

III*

M

A**

May be as much as 90% organic matter (Ref).

 

* May be more stable in oil paints when mixed with resins (Ref);

 

** Composition varies

 

***? According to webexhibits.org Van Dyke Brown is PBr8. Sennelier's Van Dyck Brown dry pigment, Utrecht's Van Dyke Brown oil paint and Schminke's Cassel Earth oil color all indicate they are PBr8, but claim them to be genuine.

The Color Index Third Edition lists Van Dyke Brown or Cassel Earth as Natural Brown 8 (NBr8), and lists Pigment Brown 8 (PBr8) as Manganese hydroxide. This seems to be a common point of confusion even among pigment and paint manufacturers. see PBr8

NBr9

Sepia

C.I. Natural Brown 9;

Natural Brown 9;

Sepia [KP.p];

Sepia fine [KP.p];

Sepia Ink [KP.p];

Sepia very fine [KP.p];

75500

from the ink sac of adriatic cuttlefish; Sepia Officinalis;

 

CAS 8030-69-1

Dark Reddish Brown black

4

IV

-

A

-

NBr11

Bistre

Birchwood Soot;

Bister;

Bister Ink [KP.p];

Bistre [KP.p];

C.I. Natural Brown 11;

Genuine Birchwood Soot;

Soot of Wood

-

Prepared from birchwood soot (Ref)

Deep brown

4

IV

-

A

MSDS

Used in water colour painting (Ref);

Artist's Network University 728x90

PBr - Pigment Brown Pigment Brown - Color Index Name: PBr
Historic Brown Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Brown  |  CI Pigment Brown  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

>
Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

PBr1

Permanent Brown FG

BON Brown;

C.I. Pigment Brown 1;

Microdis Brown MGR;

Permanent Brown FG;

Pigment Brown 1

12480

Monoazo;

Azomethine;

 

CAS 6410-40-8

Reddish brown

-

-

-

A

-

PBr6

Iron Oxide Hydroxide Brown

Antique Cypress Bark;

Antique Smoked Bamboo;

Blue Ridge Burnt Umber [NP.p];

Blue Ridge Raw Umber [NP.p];

Brown Iron Oxide [SCH.a];

Brown Ochre [DS.o];

Brown Ochre Goethite [DV.o];

Brown Oxide [KA.p];

Brown Oxide Medium [GU];

Brown Ochre Goethite [DV.o];

Burnt Sienna [GEN];

Burnt Umber [GEN | DR.a(s3hb).a(s3mb) | HO.ag.a(gesso)];

Burnt Umber Xtra Dark [GU];

C.I. Pigment Brown 6;

Cyprus Burnt Umber [NP.p];

Cyprus Burnt Umber Warm [NP.p];

Cyprus Raw Umber Light [NP.p];

Cyprus Raw Umber Medium [NP.p];

Cyprus Raw Umber Dark [NP.p];

Dark Goethite [DV.o];

Deep Brown [LA.a];

Dutch Brown [WL.o];

Dutch Brown (Transparent) [WL.p];

Dutch Brown (Transparent) [WL.o];

Enviro-Friendly Brown Iron Oxide [DS.o.w];

Enviro-Friendly Iron Oxide [DS.o.w];

Enviro-Friendly Red Iron Oxide [DS.o.w];

Enviro-Friendly Yellow Iron Oxide [DS.o.w];

Environox Dark Brown*** [EP.p];

Ferric oxide;

German Umber [KA.p];

Goethite**;

Goethite Genuine [DV.o];

Iron Oxide Brown;

Iron Oxide Hydroxide;

Italian Burnt Sienna [NP.p];

Italian Raw Sienna [NP.p];

Italian Burnt Umber [NP.p];

Italian Burnt Umber Warm [NP.p];

Italian Green Raw Umber [NP.p];

Italian Raw Umber [NP.p];

Light Brown [LA.a];

Luberon Burnt Sienna [NP.p];

Luberon Burnt Umber [NP.p];

Luberon Raw Sienna [NP.p];

Luberon Raw Sienna Light [NP.p];

Luberon Raw Umber [NP.p];

Magnetite;

Maroon Oxide [GU];

Mars Brown;

Mars Yellow [GO.a.ao];

Mineral Brown;

Monte Amiata Natural Sienna [DS.w];

Natural Black Iron Ore;

Natural Brown Oxide [CAS.k];

Nicosia Burnt Sienna [NP.p];

Nicosia Burnt Sienna Dark [NP.p];

Nicosia Raw Sienna [NP.p];

Nicosia Burnt Umber CC [NP.p];

Nicosia Burnt Umber NC [NP.p];

Nicosia Burnt Umber WN [NP.p];

Nicosia Burnt Umber WW [NP.p];

Nicosia Raw Umber [NP.p];

Oxide Brown Medium [LA.a];

Pigment Brown 6;

Pompeii Red;

Raw Siena [KA.o];

Raw Sienna [NP.p | KA.o];

Raw Umber [NP.p | KA.o];

Rhombehedral Magnetite;

Red Oxide Dark [GU];

Turkey Umber;

Van Dyke Brown (hue) [ KA.o.p | MGd]

Van Dyke Brown (Synthetic) [CAS.k];

77491

77492

77499

Inorganic; Natural and/or synthetic Ferric oxide and Ferro so-ferric hydroxide;

 

Magnetite - (mindat.org Ref);

 

Making pigments: Umbers at webexhibits.org;

 

CAS 52357-70-7

Brown to dull red*

1-3

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

28-43

A

MSDS

* Oil paints and watercolors using PBr6 and PBr 7 exist in almost any shade of yellow, orange, red and violet brown to green brown.

 

** {Ref at Mindat.org}

 

*** Environox Dark Brown from Earth Pigments is Iron Oxide produced from reclaimed iron sludge

 

The Preparation of Magnetite, goethite, hematite and magnemite of pigment quality from mill scale iron waste.

 

PBr7

Brown Iron Oxide

Antique Cypress Bark [HO.w(ant)];

Antique Smoked Bamboo [HO.w(ant)];

Bauxite Mummy [NP.p*];

Bloodstone;

Blue Ridge Violet Hematite [NP.p];

Bohemian Green Earth [SCM];

Burnt Hematite [DV.o];

Bauxite;

Brown Earth [CR.a(jo) | JO.a];

Brown Earth from Florence [MA.o];

Brown Earth from Otranto [KP.p];

Brown Ochre [BX.o | RGH.o.p | SE | WL.o.p | WN.o.o.w.wp];

Brown Orche Deep [OH.o];

Brown Ochre from Elba [KP.p];

Brown Ochre Light [BX.o | OH.o.w | WNd];

Brown Umber [WL.o.p];

Burnt Hematite [DV.o];

Burnt Natural Earth;

Burnt Sienna No.3 [KP.p];

Burnt Sienna [GEN | CAS.k | CR.a(jo).a ao.o | DB.a.w | DS.a.o.i.w | DV.a.af.k.o.w | GB.o.o.p | GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao | GR.w.w | GU | HO.a.o.o.w.wo| JO.a | KA.ad.o.p | KP.p | LB.o | LK | LQ.a | MA.o(It).o(Puro).o(artis).o.p.w.w | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MR.o | OH.a.o.w | PF.o.o | MW.o.wo | RF.e | RGH.o.p | ROSS.o | RT.o.w | SCH.o.p | SH.w | SE.p.t.w | SQ.a | TA.a.af | UT.w | WL.o.p | WN.o];

Burnt Sienna Dark [GU];

Burnt Sienna Deep [BX.o.w];

Burnt Sienna, England , brown-red [KP.p];

Burnt Sienna, from England [KP.p];

Burnt Sienna, from France [KP.p];

Burnt Sienna Light [BX.o.w];

Burnt Sienna Natural [AS];

Burnt Umber [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | CAS.k | CL | CR.a(jo).a ao.o | DB.a.o.w | DR.a.g.o.o(georg).o. w.w.t | DS.a.i.o.w | DV.a.af.k..o.w | GB.o.o.p | GO.a.af.ag.ao | GR.o.o.w.w.wo | GU | HO.g.o.o.w.wo.| JO.a | KA.ad.o.p | LB.av.o | LQ.a | MA.o.o(artis).o.p.w.w | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MR.o | MT | MW.o.wo | OH.a.o.w | PF.o | RF.e | RGH.o.p | ROSS.o | RT.o.w |SCH.o.o(Mus).p.w | SE.p.t.w | SH.w | SV | SQ.a | TA.a.af | UT.a.o.w | WL.o.p | WN.a.a.k.o.wo.w.wp.wp(L)];

Burnt Umber Dark [RGH.o];

Burnt Umber (Cyprian) [KP.p];

Burnt Umber, Cyprian, dark brown [KP.p];

Burnt Umber Light [GO.a.af | GU];

[GU];

Calcined Earth;

Calcined Natural Sienna;

Calcined Natural Umber;

Calcined Original Natural Earth;

Caledonian Brown;

Cappagh Brown;

Cassel Earth [BX.o | CH | MA.p | MR.o | NP.p];

Cassel Brown Earth;

Cat-Tail Brown [GU];

Chestnut Brown;

C.I. Pigment Brown 7;

Colonial Burgundy [EP.p];

Colonial Burnt Umber [EP.p];

Colonial Raw Umber [EP.p];

Colonial Red [EP.p];

Colonial Violet [EP.p];

Cote d'Azur Violet (Natural Light Caput Mortuum) [DS.w];

Cyprus Burnt Umber [NP.p];

Cyprus Burnt Umber Green [NP.p];

Cyprus Burnt Umber Warm [NP.p];

Cyprus Orange [WL.o];

Cyprus Raw Umber Dark [NP.p];

Cyprus Raw Umber Medium [NP.p];

Cyprus Raw Umber Light [NP.p];

Cyprus Umber;

Dark Sienna [ROSS.o];

Deep Ochre [OH.o];

Euchrome;

Elba Brown Ochre [KP.p];

French Burnt Sienna [NP.p];

French Raw Sienna [NP.p];

French Raw Umber [NP.p];

Gamboge Hue [MA.o(artis)];

Genuine Cassel's Earth [KA];

German Greenish Raw Umber [DS.w];

German Umber [KA];

Gold Ochre [BX.o.w];

Green Ochre [WL.o];

Green Umber [KA.p];

Grüne Erde natur [SCH];

Hematite [DS.o | NP.o.p];

Hematite Burnt Scarlet [DV.o];

Hematite Burnt Scarlet Genuine[DS.o.w**];

Hematite Genuine[DS.w** | DV.o];

Hematite Violet [DV.o];

Hematite Violet Genuine[DS.w**];

Iseo Brown [KP.p];

Italian Burnt Sienna [DS.w | KP.p | NP.p | WL.o.p];

Italian Brown Earth;

Italian Earth [BX.o.w | OH.o.w | SQ.a];

Italian Green Ochre [WL.p];

Italian Raw Sienna [NP.p];

Italian Raw Umber [WL.o];

Jacaranta Brown;

Mars Brown [RGH.o.p];

Monte Amiata Natural;

Monte Amiata Natural Sienna [DS.w];

Mummy [NP.o];

Mummy Bauxite [DS.w**];

Mauve Umber [RGH.o];

Native Earth;

Natural Bohemian Green Earth [SCH.o(Mus)];

Natural Brown Iron Oxide;

Natural Burnt Sienna [SCH.o(Mus);

Natural Burnt Umber [SCH.a.o(Mus)];

Natural Earth;

Natural Green Earth [SCH.a];

Natural Iron-Manganese Oxide;

Natural Iron Oxide;

Ocher;

Ochre [GEN] [OH.o.w];

Old Holland Ochre [OH.o.w];

Original Natural Earth;

Pigment Brown 7;

Pompeii Red [DS.w];

Raw Brown;

Raw Sienna [GEN | AS | CAS.k | CR.a(jo) | DB.a.w | DR.o.w | DS.a.i.o.w | DV.a.af.k.o.w | GB.o.o.p | GR.a.o.o.w.wo | JO.a | KA.p | LB.o | LK | LQ.a | MA.o.o.p.w.w | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MR.o | MW.o.wo | OH.a.o.w | PF | RF.e | RGH.o.p | SCH.p.w | SE.p.t.w | SQ.a | TA.a.af | UT.a.o.w | WL.o.p | WN];

Raw Sienna Dark [CR.ao.o];

Raw Sienna Deep [MA.o.p | OH.o];

Raw Sienna Natural Dark;

Raw Sienna Light [MA.o.o(artis).p | OH.w];

Raw Umber [GEN | AS | CAS.k | CL | CR.a(jo).ao.o | DB.a .o | DS.a.i.o.w | DR.a.a(s3hb).a(s3mb).o.o.w.w.t | DV.a.af.k.o.w | GB.o.o.p | GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao | GR.o | GU | HO.a.g.o.o.w.wo | JO.a | KA.ad.p | LB.o | LQ.a | MA.o.p.w.w | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MR.o | MT | MW.o.wo | OH.a.o.w | PF.w | RF.e | RGH.o.p | ROSS.o | RT.o.w | SCH.a.o.w | SE.p.t.w | SV | SH.w | SQ.a | TA.a. | UT.a.o.w | WL.o.p | WN.a.a.o.wo.w.w.wp.wp(L)];

Raw Umber Greenish [SCH.p];

Raw Umber (Green Shade) [WN.o];

Raw Umber Light [SCH.o(Mus) | WN.a.o.w];

Raw Umber Natural [ DV.w];

Raw Umber (Rare Earth) [GU];

Red Brown [SE];

Red Ochre [WL.o];

Red Umber [MH.o | OH.o.w | WL.o];

Sard Red Earth [MA.o];

Sardinian Red Earth [MA.o];

Sienna;

Sicilian Brown;

Spanish Earth [MH | WL.p];

Spanish Earth (Purple Ochre) [WL.o];

Terra d'Ombre;

Terre d'Ombre Brulee (Brûlée) [LB.o];

Terra Di Sienna;

Terre de Sienne Brulee (Brûlée) [LB.o];

Transparent Brown Iron Oxide[GO.a];

Transparent Red Oxide [CL];

Turkey Brown;

Turkey Umber [RGH.o | WL.o];

Turkey Umber Greenish [RF.e];

Umber [GEN | HO.w];

Van Dijck Brown (hue) [BX]

Van Dyck Brown (hue) [BXw | DS.o | GR | LK | MR.o];

Van Dyke Brown (hue) [TA.a. | KA.p | MT];

Velvet Brown;

Violet Hematite [NP.o.p]

Yavapai Genuine [DS.w];

Yellow Ochre Burnt [ OH.o.w | WL.o]

 

77491

77492

Iron Oxide and/or Calcined Iron Oxide usually with varying amounts of hydrated Iron Oxide along with Manganese Oxide and other natural minerals depending on mine site.;

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Burnt Sienna;

Raw Sienna;

Raw Umber

 

How Umber is made at webexhibits.org;

 

CAS 12713-03-0

Yellow brown to brown to dull red****

1-4***

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

60-80

A

MSDS

MSDS

MSDS

Natural product can contain Manganese which acts as a drier;

 

* Lots more info on mummy & bauxite at the Natural Pigments website.

 

** more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.

 

*** transparency varies widely depending on mineral content and other impurities

 

**** Oil paints and watercolors using PBr6 and PBr 7 exist in almost any shade of yellow, orange, red or violet brown to green brown.

PBr8

Manganese Brown

Black Manganese Oxide;

Bog Manganese;

Braunstein;

Bruinsteen;

Burnt Umber | Cyprus [KP.p];

Burnt Umber light reddish-brown [KP.p];

Burnt Umber Reddish [KP.p];

Caledonian Brown;

Cappagh Brown;

Cassel Earth [SCH..p*?];

Cassler/Van Dyke Brown [SCH.p*?];

Cement Black;

C.I. Pigment Brown 8;

Mangaanbioxyde;

Mangaandioxyde;

Mangandioxid

Manganese Binoxide;

Manganese (biossido Di);

Manganese (bioxyd De);

Manganese Black;

Manganese (diossido Di);

Manganese (dioxyde De);

Manganese(iv) Oxide;

Manganese Peroxide;

Manganese Superoxide;

Manganese Brown;

Manganese Brown Intense [KP.p];

Manganese Dioxide;

Manganite;

Mineral Brown Black (Pyrolusite) [NP.p];

Natural Brown Earth;

Pigment Black 14;

Pigment Brown 8;

Pyrolusite;

Pyrolusite Brown;

Raw Umber dark [KP.p];

Raw Umber | from Cyprus [KP.p];

Sepia;

Umber Reddish | OK 46 [KP.p];

Van Dyck Brown (hue)*? [GR.o | SE.p | SCH.p | [UT.o]

 

77730

77728

"Manganic hydroxide, Mn(OH), together with manganese manganite.", " Occurs naturally as manganite but the commercial product is usually synthetic." (Ref Inorganic Colouring Matters, Color Index 3rd Ed.)

 

Manganese hydroxide and oxides, the natural form usually also contains iron oxides and clays;

 

Manganic oxide;

Manganic hydroxide;

 

Making pigments: Umbers at webexhibits.org;

 

CAS 317-35-7

CAS 1313-13-9

Reddish brown to brownish black

-

I

60

B

* Sennelier's Van Dyck Brown dry pigment, Utrecht's Van Dyke Brown oil paint and Schminke's Cassel Earth oil color, may be NBr8 and just misprinted or mistakenly labeled as PBr8 (Pigment Brown 8}, They all claim to be genuine Van Dyke Brown which would actually be NBr8 (Natural Brown 8). They also claim moderate or average light fastness which is more consistent with Natural Brown 8. Pigment Brown 8 is highly lightfast.

 

There seems to be a curtain amount of confusion about this pigment even among manufacturers and art suppliers.

PBr9

Copper Ferrocyanide*

Copper Ferrocyanide;

C.I. Pigment Brown 9;

Florence brown;

Florentine Brown;

Hatchett´s Brown;

Pigment Brown 9;

Van Dyke Brown (hue***) [DB.w | GR.w | WL.o?**];

Vandyke Red***;

Van Dyke Red***

77430

Inorganic;

Copper hexacyanoferrate(II);

Cupric ferrocyanide and Cupric potassium ferrocyanide;

 

CAS 13601-13-3

Blackish brown

-

II-III?

BWS
5;4;1
(guerra paint)

-

B

* According to the Color Index International Pigments & Solvent Dyes, By The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition, PBr9 is Copper Ferrocyanide;

** According to their web site Williamsburg's Van Dyke Brown is PBr9. This might be a typo. In the copy they claim it to be genuine Van Dyke Brown which would be NBr8.

*** However "Van Dyke Red" is indicated to be Copper Ferrocyanide in A Treatise on Color Manufacture By George Zerr, Robert Rübencamp, 1908, and said to be a "shade that can be imitated cheaply and very easily with red ferric oxide colours" indicating a brownish nature. So it seems there might be a historical justification for labeling PBr9 as genuine Van Dyke Brown in paints, even though it is not the pigment generally thought to be the "genuine" Van Dyke brown.

PBr10

Calcium Orthoplumbate

Calcium Plumbate;

Calcium Orthoplumbate;

Caldiox;

C.I. Pigment Brown 10;

Pigment Brown 10

77227

Calcium lead oxide;

Calcium Orthoplubate;

Dicalcium lead tetraoxide;

 

CAS 12013-69-3;

CAS 12774-29-7

Light Yellowish Brown

-

I

L

C*

Oxidizing agent;

promotes adhesion;

Used as rust inhibitor and primer;

 

* Contains insoluble lead so there may not be much of lead hazard.

PBr11

Magnesium Ferrite

C.I. Pigment Brown 11;

Iron Magnesium Oxide;

Lunar Earth [DS.w];

Magnesium Brown [WN.w.wp]?*;

Magnesium Ferrite [DS.o];

Mars Yellow [HO.o];

Mapico Tan;

Pigment Brown 11

77495

Inorganic;

Ferric magnesium oxide;

Iron Magnesium Oxide;

 

CAS 64294-89-9

Reddish brown

1

I

40

A

MSDS

?* The winsor and newton specifications for this paint list it as being PY119 (Zinc Ferrite Brown Spinel), but list the chemical name as 'Iron magnesium oxide', most likely there is a typo in their technical specs, and this should actually be labeled PBr11, which is Iron Magnesium Oxide;

PBr12

Cassel Brown

Cassel Brown [KP.p];

Cassel Brown Stain [KP.p];

C.I. Pigment Brown 12;

Oak Stain;

Van Dyck Brown;

Walnut Stain

-

Sodium salts of humic acid;

 

CAS 68131-04-04

Dark brown

-

-

-

B*

* Skin irritant

PBr22

Pigment Brown 22

C.I. Pigment Brown 22;

Pigment Brown 22;

Pigment Brown 2R

10407

Nitro;

 

CAS 29398-96-7

Reddish brown

-

-

-

A

-

PBr23

Pigment Brown 23

Azo Russet [GU];

Brown Madder (hue) [SE.o];

C.I. Pigment Brown 23;

Cromophtal Brown 5R;

Disazo Brown;

Gubbio Red [KP.p];

Light Brown [HO.a];

Madder Brown [SE];

Microlith Brown 5R;

Pigment Brown 23;

Transparent Brown [HO.o];

Van Dyke Brown (hue);

20060

Disazo;

(chemnet.com Ref)

 

CAS 35869-64-8

Dull reddish brown

3-4

I

BWS
7-8;7;6-7
(guerra paint)

70

A

MSDS

(Ref: Ciba);

 

PBr24

Chrome Antimony Titanate

Bohemian Ochre Light;

Chrome Titanate;

Chrome Antimony Titanate;

Chrome Antimony Titanium Buff Rutile;

Chrome Titanate;

Chrome Titanate Brown;

Chrome Titanate Orange[

Chrome Titanate Yellow [GR.o];

Chrome Titanium Yellow;

Chrome Yellow Titanium [SCH.p];

Chrome Yellow Rutile;

Chromium Rutile;

Chromium Titanate Yellow [GR.o];

C.I. Pigment Brown 24;

Daipyroxide Yellow;

Ferro Autumn Gold V;

Fragonard Earth Yellow [PF.o];

Gold Ochre [LA.a];

Honey Gold Yellow;

Ironstone Brown No.39;

Jaune Brilliant [KA.p];

Light Yellow 3R;

Light Yellow Ochre [DB.o | SE.o];

Marigold Yellow;

Mars Yellow Light [SE.a];

Meteor® Plus Yellow Buff 9371;

Naples Yellow (hue) [MG.w | MH.o | WN];

Naples Yellow Deep (hue) [DV.w | KA.o | SCH.a.o.o(Mus) | WN.a.g.o.w.wp];

Naples Yellow Deep (Imitation) [KA.p];

Naples Yellow Deep Extra [OH.a.o.w];

Naples Yellow Italian (hue) [WL.o.p];

Pigment Brown 24;

Titanate Gold Ochre;

Titanium Gold Ochre [SCH.g.w];

Titanium Orange [KP.p];

Yellow Ochre Light [DB | RT.o]

77310

Inorganic;

(Ti,Cr,Sb)O2

Chrome Antimony Titanium Buff Rutile, is created by calcination of Titanium (IV) Oxide, Chromium (III) Oxide, and Antimony (V) Oxide in varied ratios creating a mixed phase system with a Rutile structure. It may include one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, MnO, NiO, WO3 and/or ZnO. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Chrome Antimony Titanium oxide mixed phase system having a rutile structure;

Chrome Antimony Titanium Buff Rutile;

 

LBNL Pigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Chrome Antimony Titanium Buff Rutile (i);

Chrome Antimony Titanium Buff Rutile (ii);

Chrome Antimony Titanium Buff Rutile (iii);

Chrome Titanate Yellow;

 

CPMA 11-17-6

 

CAS 68186-90-3

Light yellowish to reddish brown to light golden orange

1

I

13-34

B

MSDS

Said to make a good non-toxic Naples Yellow substitute in artist colors.

A interesting pigment color in it's own right.

PBr25

Benzimidazolone Brown

Benzimidazo Brown [GU];

Benzimidazolone Brown;

Brown [SH.w];

C.I. Pigment Brown 25;

Fragonard Red Brown [PF.o];

Hostaperm Brown HFR 01;

Imidazolone Brown [HO.w.wo];

Microdis Brown;

Permanent Brown [DS.w];

Pigment Brown 25;

Renol Brown;

SICOTAN® Yellow1 [BASF];

Transparent Brown [DV.af | SQ.a];

Transparent Maroon [WN.o];

Transparent Red Ochre [LB.o];

Van Dyke Red [LQ.a];

Viscofil Brown

12510

Organic; Monoazo;

Benzimidazolone;

 

CAS 6992-11-6

Deep red-violet brown

4

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

86

A

MSDS

MSDS1

Nice rich brown, great for glazing.

 

BASF SICOTAN® Yellow Data Sheet.

PBr27

Thioindigoid Brown

Calcotone Brown 2R;

C.I. Pigment Brown 27;

Pigment Brown 27;

Various brand names prefixes to Red Brown or Bordeaux

73410

Thioindigoid;

 

CAS 3989-75-1

Brownish Brown

-

-

-

A

-

PBr29

Chrome Iron Brown

Chromium Iron Oxide;

Chromium Iron Oxide Black;

C.I. Pigment Brown 29;

Iron Chromite;

Iron Chrome brown;

Naples Yellow [RGH.o.p];

Pigment Brown 29;

Shepherd Black 411;

Sicopal® Black K 0095;

Sicopal® Brown K 2795 FG

77500

Inorganic;

Chromium Iron Brown: mixed phase pigment based on iron oxide-chromium oxide and corresponding approximately to the formula. (Fe, Cr)2O3. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

Iron Chromite;

Iron chromium oxide;

 

LBNL Pigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Chromium Iron Oxide (i);

Chromium Iron Oxide (ii);

 

CAS 109414-04-2;

CAS 12737-27-8

Bright to very dark reddish brown

2

I

18

A

Identical to pigment green 17? (Ref)

PBr30

Pigment Brown 30

C.I. Pigment Brown 20;

Graphtol Red Brown Cl-RL;

Pigment Brown 30;

-

Anthraquinone

Reddish brown

-

-

-

A

-

PBr31

Zinc Ferrite Brown

C.I. Pigment Brown;

Pigment Brown 31;

Zinc Ferrite;

Zinc Ferrite Brown;

Zinc Ferrite Brown Spinel;

 

77496

Zinc Ferrite Brown Spinel, formula (Zn,Fe)Fe2O4 is created by high temperature calcination of a mixture of zinc oxides with ferrous and ferric iron in varying ratios to make a crystalline matrix of spinel. Its composition may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, NiO, SiO2, SnO2 or TiO2. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

CAS 68187-51-9

Brown

-

-

-

A

-

PBr33

Zinc Iron Chromite Brown

Brown 10P8571;

Calf Skin Brown No.6;

Chromium Iron Zinc Brown;

Chromium Iron Zinc Brown Spinel;

C.I. Pigment Brown 33;

Cocoa Brown No.157;

Daipyroxide Brown 9220;

Dark Brown;

Mahogany Brown No.12;

Mineral Brown [SCH.o(Mus)];

Pigment Brown 33;

Shepherd Brown 12;

Shepherd Brown 157;

Zinc-Iron Chrome Brown [KP.p];

Zinc-Iron Chrome Brown, light, spinel;

Zinc Iron Chromite;

Zinc Iron Chromite Brown Spinel;

Walnut Brown [SCH.w]

77503

Zinc Iron Chromite brown Spinel (Zn,Fe)(Fe,Cr)2O4 is made by the high temperature calcining of a mixture of Zinc (II) Oxide, Iron (II) Oxide, Iron (III) Oxide, and Chromium (III) Oxide in varying ratios to create a crystalline spinel matrix. Its composition may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, NiO, SiO2, SnO2 and/or TiO2. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Zinc Iron Chromite Brown Spinel;

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Zinc Iron Chromite Brown Spinel (i);

Zinc Iron Chromite Brown Spinel (ii);

 

CPMA 13-37-7;

 

CAS 68186-88-9

Dark; brown to Reddish brown

1

I

12-16

A

MSDS1

-

PBr34

Nickel Ferrite Brown

C.I. Pigment Brown 34;

Daipyroxide Brown 9270;

Iron Nickel Brown;

Iron Nickel Brown Spinel;

Nickel Ferrite Brown Spinel;

Pigment Brown 34

77497

Inorganic; Nickel Ferrite Brown, created by the reaction of calcining Iron (III) Oxide and Nickel (11) Oxide in varying ratios creating a spinel form crystalline matrix. The addition of either/or A12O3, FeO, SiO2, SnO2, and/or TiO2 are used as modifiers during the creation process;

 

CPMA 13-35-7;

 

CAS 68187-10-0

Brown

-

-

-

B

-

PBr35

Iron Chromite Brown

Chromium Iron Brown;

Chromium Iron Brown Spinel;

C.I. Pigment Brown 35;

Iron Chromite Brown;

Iron Chromite Brown Spinel;

Pigment Brown 35

77501

Inorganic;

Iron Chromite Brown Spinel Fe(Fe,Cr)2O4 is created by high temperature calcination of a mixture of Iron (II) Oxide, Iron (III) Oxide, and Chromium (III) Oxide in varied amounts creating a crystalline matrix of spinel. Its composition may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, B2O3, NiO, SiO2, SnO2 and/or TiO2. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Iron chromite spinel;

 

CPMA 13-33-7;

 

CAS 68187-09-7

Dark reddish brown to blue Black

-

-

-

A

-

PBr37

Manganese Niobium

Titanium Brown

C.I. Pigment Brown 37;

Manganese Niobium;

Manganese Niobium Brown Rutile;

Manganese Niobium Titanium Brown Rutile

Pigment Brown 37;

Titanium Brown Rutile;

 

77890

Inorganic;

Manganese Niobium Titanium Brown Rutile is made by calcining Manganese (II) Oxide, Niobium (V) Oxide, and Titanium (IV) Oxide in varied ratios creating a interdiffused crystalline rutile, It may have the modifier Sb2O5 (Reference: 4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments).;

 

CPMA 11-47-7

 

CAS 70248-09-8

Dull reddish brown

-

-

-

B

-

PBr39

Zinc Manganese Chromate

C.I. Pigment Brown 39;

Chrome Manganese Zinc Brown Spinel;

Chromium Manganese Zinc Brown;

Meteor Brown Light Iron Free 7739;

Pigment Brown 39

77312

Inorganic;

Zinc Manganese Chromate;

Chrome Manganese Zinc Brown Spinel, is created by calcining a mixture of Chromium (III) Oxide, Manganese (II) Oxide and Zinc (II) Oxide in various ratios creating a spinel type crystalline matrix. It can be modified by A12O3, NiO, SiO2, SnO2, and/or TiO2 during the creation faze. (Reference: 4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments).;.

 

CPMA 13-51-7

 

CAS 71750-83-9

Reddish brown

-

-

-

B

Natural or Synthetic semi-precious stone?

PBr40

Manganese chrome antimony titanium brown rutile

Antimony Chromium Manganese Brown Rutile;

C.I. Pigment Brown 40;

Manganese Chrome Antimony Titanium Brown Rutile;

Meteor Brown (iron and Zinc free);

Pigment Brown 40

77897

Inorganic;

Manganese chrome antimony titanium brown rutile is the product of calcining Titanium (IV) Oxide, Manganese (II) Oxide; Chromium (III) Oxide, and Antimony (V) Oxide, forming an interdiffused crystalline rutile matrix.

 

CPMA 11-46-7;

 

CAS 71750-83-9

Dark brown

-

-

-

B

-

PBr41

Disazo Condensation Brown

C.I. Pigment Brown 41;

Disazo Condensation Brown;

Translucent Brown [SCH.w];

Pigment Brown 41;

Sandorin Brown RL

-

Organic; Disazo Condensation;

 

CAS 68516-75-6

Very yellowish to Reddish Brown

2-3

I

-

A

-

PBr42

Azo Golden Brown

Azo Golden Brown [GU];

C.I. Pigment Brown 42;

Pigment Brown 42

-

Disazocondensation;

 

CAS 80648-58-4

Dark yellowish Brown

3-4

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

-

-

-

PBr43

Iron-Manganese Oxide

Bayferrox 645T;

C.I. Pigment Brown 43;

Pigment Brown 43;

Yellow Ochre (hue*)

77536

Inorganic;

Synthetic iron-manganese mixed oxide;

Manganic ferric oxide;

 

CAS 12062-81-6

Brown

1

I

-

B

*Similar chemical make-up as the natural yellow ochres and brown umbers

PBr44

Cobalt Tungsten Titanium Buff

C.I. Pigment Brown 44;

Cobalt Tungsten Titanium Buff Rutile;

Meteor Plus Yellow Buff;

Pigment Brown 44

778955

Inorganic; Cobalt Tungsten Titanium Buff Rutile;

 

CAS 144437-67-2

Yellowish brown

-

-

-

B

-

PBr45

Manganese Tungsten Titanium Brown

C.I. Pigment Brown 45;

Manganese Tungsten Titanium Brown Rutile;

Meteor Plus High IR Brown 9730;

Pigment Brown 45

778965

Inorganic; Manganese Tungsten Titanium Rutile;

 

CAS 144437-66-1

Reddish brown

-

-

-

B

-

PBr46

Chrome Iron Manganese Brown Spinel

C. I. Pigment Brown 46;

Chrome Iron Manganese Brown Spinel;

Chromium Iron Manganese Brown;

Chromium Iron Manganese Zinc Brown;

Pigment Brown 46;

774945

Inorganic;

Chrome Iron Manganese Brown Spinel, is created by calcining Chromium (III) Oxide, Iron (II & III) Oxide, and Manganese (II & III) Oxide in varied ratios creating a spinel form crystal matrix. May be modified by Zinc Oxide (Reference: 4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments).;

 

CPMA 13-48-7

 

Chromium iron manganese:

CAS 68555-06-6;

Chromium iron manganese zinc brown:

CAS 68186-96-9

Brown

-

-

-

-

-


HostMonster

PAINT AND PIGMENT REFERANCE TABLE KEY:    Page Top^
Jump to : Supplier\Manufacturer Codes  |  Binder/Medium Codes

Opacity

1 = opaque
4 = trans.

Light
Fastness

I = excel.
IV=Fugitive

Toxic


Color Index Generic Name:
  Key Top ^ Page Top^
This is the C.I. Generic Name (abbreviated) given by the ASTM and Colour Index International (CII) for that pigment. The first 2 or 3 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.

Natural Dye and Solvent Pigments
These are naturally occurring organic pigments and dyes. With a few exceptions, most are plant or animal extracts or dyes that need to be fixed to a substrate to become pigments (i.e. Madder Lake). A few are organic natural earths such as Cassel earth (Van Dyke Brown). They are designated with C.I. Generic name of which consists of the usage class "Natural" and basic hue, followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Natural Brown 8). Natural pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class N + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. NBr 8)
  Pigment
Pigments can be organic or Inorganic. Most modern pigments are given this usage designation by the Color Index. They can be completely synthetic, naturally occurring minerals, or lakes based on the synthetic derivatives of natural dyes. Pigments are designated with C.I. Generic name which consists of the usage class "Pigment" and the basic hue followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Pigment Red 106, Cadmium Red). The pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class P + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. PR83 for Pigment Red 83)

 

NY = Natural Yellow;
NO = Natural Orange;
NR = Natural Red;
NV = Natural Violet;
NB = Natural Blue;
NG = Natural Green;
NBr = Natural Brown;
NBk = Natural Black;
NW = Natural White;

 

 

PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal

 

The CI (Color Index) Common Pigment Name:   Key Top ^ Page Top^
In this database the common name is the name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997) by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials.

When the Colour Index (3rd edition) has not specified a name, I have used the name that the first manufacturer, inventor or original patent holder has given that pigment. In the case of ancient pigments, historic pigments, minerals or other odd pigments, I have used the most commonly used traditional historic, mineral or chemical name as determined by my research.


Common, Historic and Marketing Names:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any particular name, but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used in the past according to historic pigment books & references, paint sales literature, and pigment manufacturers references. They have been collected (in order of importance) from

1.) Paint manufacturers, pigment manufacturers and/or other pigment supplier literature;

2.) Various web sites in particular AMIEN.org, Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint.com, Kremer Pigments, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, PCImag.com and along with internet forums on art and painting, web sites of paint manufacturers, paint suppliers, chemical manufactures and pigment manufacturers;.

3.) The Color Index, Third edition (published by the Colour Index International, 1997);

4.) Historical books on pigments, oil painting, watercolor painting and other art forms (see Free Art e-Books);

5.) Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works);

6.) Various dictionaries and encyclopedias (both historic and contemporary).

 

(hue):
When a manufacturer has has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name and has not clearly indicated it to be a hue or substitute, I have indicated it with the "(hue)"* in parenthesis. For example calling\naming a paint made with Phthalocyanine Blue as "Azure", "Smalt" or "Cobalt Blue".

*In order to stay within ASTM specification D 4302-05, manufactures are encouraged to use the word "hue" when the paint or pigment marketing name is not the real name of a paint or a pigment. Substitute and tone could be also considered acceptable means of indicating a hue substitute for the actual color. However, the ASTM specifications are usually voluntary and there is little means to enforce them. Also because of language differences, changes in the paint or pigments common identification because of contemporary usage (often perpetrated by manufacturer's incorrect color marketing names), and last but not least - the sheer multitude of historically used paint names for any given paint\pigment, it's nearly impossible to prove or say a manufacturer of art materials is being purposely deceptive.

 

C.I. Constitution Number or Colour Index Constitution Number (chemical composition):   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the chemical constitution numbers given that pigment by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. Each of the numbers in the "Colour Index Constitution Number" has a specific chemical or compositional meaning; for more information see the Colour Index Number Chart or go to the Color Index International and ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials web sites (these links open in a new window)..

Chemical Composition:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. I have also included CAS numbers, when I can fine them. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways and can also give an indication of the manufacture method. Very often a pigment can be a group of related compounds rather than one specific chemical. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses, but only basic information that should help you to find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.
Adulterants, extenders and other additives may be added to artistic paints to improve the paint rheology, transparency, and\or drying time. Often inert pigments, extenders and fillers are added to the color pigments in student grade paints or to modify paint pigments with overly strong tinting strength, i.e. the Phthalocyanine Blues and Greens.
These extra ingredients are rarely listed of the label.

Color Description:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain English. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. This range in hues can be due to many things such as different manufacturing processes, exact chemical composition and crystal shape. In most cases, i have not used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this (such as the Munsell system), but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and Colourists, third edition 1997), I have used that description, when there is no color hue description in the Color Index, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.

† = Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage. These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.

Fades = Becomes more Transparent
Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains relative transparency or opaque character;
Whitens = Becomes lighter towards white and more opaque;
Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;
Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral but maintains the relative tone;  
Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;  
Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color

Opacity - Transparency:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This designation is only a general reference to the most common encountered opacity or transparency inherit to the pigment. In paints, the transparency of a pigment can change due to what is used as the painting medium or binder (i.e., oil color, watercolor, encaustic, acrylic, etc.). There are many pigments that are opaque in watercolor but transparent or semi-transparent in oil paints. The transparency of a paint or pigment can often be manipulated by the manufacturing process for a particular purpose. The addition of inert pigments or other modifiers can also change the perceived transparency of a paint formulation or pigment.
When available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. When the Color Index description is unavailable i have arrived at a general figure by manufacturer literature or personal experience. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.
 
1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent

Light Fastness Rating:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

The light fastness rating can only be a general guide, when available, i have used the ASTM rating or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, and I believe will no longer be rating pigments. For that reason the rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale is 8, in this database lightfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. Very often, pigments in tints are less light fast and this should be taken into account when determining if a pigment or paint will meet your needs. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following: (ASTM D4303 - 10, Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials, or ASTM D01.57, the Subcommittee on Artists' Materials doc here, opens new window); or this (AMIEN.org Thread - opens new window). Blue Wool Scale will be given when known, but be aware that these may be from tests on a single formulation, and may not be the same for all brands or binders.
 
I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor (may last many years in museum conditions, but should be used with caution for permanent works of art)
IV = Fugitive/Very Poor

 

BWS = Blue wool scale

7-8 = Excellent,
6 = Very Good,
4-5
= Fair (Impermanent),
2-3 Poor (fugitive),
1
= Very Poor (fugitive)*

*When known, blue wool scale ratings will be given for tints in the following format: Full;1/2 tint/;1/4 tint (i.e. Cadmium Red would be 8;8;8 with excellent light fastness in all tints). Note: these may from tests on a single formulation or pigment brand, and may not be valid for other brands or binders.

 

Oil Absorption: is given in g/100g or grams of oil per 100 grams of pigment   Key Top ^ Page Top^
or as H, M, L (see below)

The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works). The higher the oil absorption, generally, the longer it will take to dry when used in oil painting. The addition of driers, siccatives, retardants and other additives can effect the drying time of any specific formulation, or they can be added by the artist to speed up or slow down the drying of oil paints. In some literature the oil absorption rate is given as ml/100g, although not technically the same as g/100g, for the purposes of this database they are close enough.

Depending on the specifications i have available I may also use the following designations:
H = High;   - These pigments absorb a lot of oil.
M = Medium;    - Average drying or cure rate
L = Low;    - Usually very fast driers

Toxicity:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

Under this heading will be a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, art books and art reference works (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), MSDS sheets, the EPA manual: Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans (full PDF here), The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI), The Health and the Arts Program - Great Lakes Centers at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH), The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works has a collection of articles on art safety, The Consumer Product Safety Commission's Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB) and Art Materials Business Guidance

All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but, if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous pigments can be used safely. Very few pigments used in the arts are edible, and even so called "Food Colors" are not meant to be used in large quantities and may have unknown side effects or allergic reactions.

WARNING: Always use a dust mask when working with any dry pigments. Work in a separate area of your studio away from children, pets or other living things. Do not smoke, eat or drink around any art materials. Dispose of all waste materials in an environmentally safe way.

A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible hazard if carelessly handled, ingested in large amounts or over long periods of time;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling toxic substances; 
D = Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with these pigments (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window); or the PDF - Booklet Safe Handling of Colour Pigments Copyright © 1995: BCMA, EPSOM, ETAD, VdMI - link from VdMI


The Side Notes Column:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. Please remember that they are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided for further info.

Miscellaneous:

(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.

(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the reference source of the information that I have given, or just a link to more detailed information.

? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable references, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.

Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:*****   Key Top ^ Page Top^
Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
The manufacturer code is to indicate companies that make or supply paints or pigments using the particular pigment. Only those products that are single pigments will be indicated in this database. In a few cases, the Color Index International has listed a mixture of pigments or chemicals under a single color index pigment name or code, and these will also be designated as if they were a single pigment. The codes next to the pigments in above Color of Art Database may take you off sight where you can find more info or even purchase, if you so desire. These codes are not part of any standard, but were made up by me for this database, with purpose of making them as short as possible.
The links below next to the manufacturer code below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window.

DG = Daniel Green (discontinued?)

EP = Earth Pigments

GB = Gamblin

GEN = Common Generic term

GO = Golden

GR = Grumbacher

GU = Guerra Paint & Pigment

HO = Holbien

JO = Jo Sonja

KA = Kama Pigments

KP = Kremer Pigmente  (USA site)


Paint medium or binder code:  Key Top ^ Page Top^

Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links.

d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All other art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.

a = Acrylic Paint, heavy body;

ab = Acrylic Airbrush colors;

ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions;

af = Fluid Acrylics;

ag = Matte Acrylic or Acrylic Gouache;

ao = open acrylics or slow drying

k = Alkyd paints;

c = Casein or milk paint;

d = Discontinued

e = Encaustic paints;

g = Traditional water color Gouache;

i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);

o = Oil Paint;

p = Dry Pigment;

t = Artist Professional Tempera or Egg Tempera;

w = Watercolor Paint in tubes;

wp = Watercolor Pan; wp = 1/2 pan, wp(f) = full pan, wp(L) = large pan

wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

 

am = Acrylic medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

om = Oil painting Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

wm = Watercolor Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

GEN = Where there is a generally accepted common historic name associated with a pigment, I have used "GEN" to denote the generic or common historical name of a particular pigment.


Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.

 


©2013 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.

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Artist Reference Resources:

Historical Artist and Pigment Reference Sources:  
This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the
Free Art Books Page.

  1. The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish,
    By Alvah Horton Sabin, Published by J. Wiley & Sons, 1904
  2. The Painters' Encyclopaedia,
    By Franklin B. Gardner, Published by M.T. Richardson, 1887
  3. The Science of Painting,
    By Jehan Georges Vibert, Published by P. Young, 1892
  4. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Cennino Cennini, Giuseppe Tambroni, Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Published by Lumley, 1844
  5. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Leonardo Da Vinci, John Francis Rigaud, Published by J.B. Nichols and Son 1835
  6. The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini,
    By Cennino Cennini, Cennini, Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Translated by Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Published by G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1899
  7. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,
    By Arthur Herbert Church, Published by Seeley, 1901
  8. A Handbook for Painters and Art Students on the Character and Use of Colours,
    By William J. Muckley, Published by Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1880
  9. The Household Cyclopedia,
    By Henry Hartshorne 1881
  10. The Chemistry of Pigments,
    By Ernest John Parry, John Henry Coste, Published by Scott, Greenwood, 1902
  11. Facts about Processes, Pigments and Vehicles: A Manual for Art Student,
    By Arthur Pillans Laurie, Published by Macmillan, 1895
  12. The Manufacture Of Earth Colours:
    By DR. JOSEF BERSCH, translated by CHARLES SALTER,SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON , 1921 Link
  13. Materials for Permanent Painting,
    By Maximilian Toch 1911

 

Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources:

  1. The Artist’s Handbook,
    by Pip Seymour, Arcturus Publishing (September 16, 2003)
  2. The Artist's Handbook, Revised Edition,
    Ray Smith; DK Publishing 2003
  3. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques,
    Third edition, by Ralph Mayer; Viking Press 1979
  4. Artists' Pigments: Volume 1: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Robert L. Feller
  5. Artists' Pigments: Volume 2: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Ashok Roy (Oct 2, 1993)
  6. Artists' Pigments: Volume 3: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (Oct 1997)
  7. Artists' Pigments: Volume 4: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Barbara Berrie (Jun 7, 2007)
  8. Collins Artist's Colour Manual,
    Simon Jennings; HarperCollins Publishers 2003
  9. Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes,
    The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition 1998
  10. A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques,
    Ralph Mayer, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969
  11. The Materials and Techniques of Painting,
    by Jonathan Stephenson (May 1993)
  12. The Painter's Handbook,
    Mark David Gottsegen; Watson-Guptill Publications 1993
  13. Painting Materials A Short Encyclopaedia,
    by Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout; Dover Publications 1966
  14. Pigment Compendium,
    by Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall; Butterworth Heinemann 2004

 

 

Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials:

  1. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC):

    National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.

  2. AMIEN:
    a resource for artists dedicated to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials
  3. Blick Art Materials;
    has done a extremely thorough job of indicating the pigments used in most of the paints they sell, making the Dick Blick art supply website much more than just a store to purchase paint and art supplies.
    Dick Blick also has the MSDS sheets
    for of most of the products they sell , making the Blick site a valuable resource for toxicity info and the health and safety of artist materials.
  4. Coloria.net,
    a large and thorough site on pigments, in Finnish http://www.coloria.net/index.htm
  5. Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), The Materials Database,
    developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), to be a more comprehensive and well-rounded encyclopedic resource for the art conservation and historic preservation fields. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials.
  6. Conservation OnLine (CoOL):
    A freely accessible platform to generate and disseminate vital resources for those working to preserve cultural heritage worldwide.
  7. The Handprint,com;
    site by Bruce MacEvoy has loads of excellent information on watercolor pigments and Has a excellent color wheel showing where the actual pigments are in color space. Truly an awesome site, the site is directed at watercolors, but is a good general reference for any paints or pigments.
  8. Webexhibits.org;
    Great pigment sight that even includes step by step instructions for making you own pigments.
  9. The Real Color Wheel;
    by Don Jusko is also a great color site.
  10. Studiomara;
    has a fantastic pigment reference database sorted by the marketing paint color name and brand.
  11. Health and Safety in the Arts;
    A Searchable Database of Health & Safety Information for Artists
  12. Household Products Database;
    Health and safety information on household products from the US Department of Health and Human Services
  13. Natural Pigments:
    One of the best sources of rare natural and historical pigments and information.
  14. Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; by Julie C. Sparks, is part of The Painted Word Site. Wonderful stuff.
  15. Paintmaking.com: By Tony Johansen, Great Paint making site with all types of useful pigment and binder information for the artist.
  16. PCImag.com; Paint & Coatings Indusry
        2010 Additives Handbook by Darlene Brezinski, Dr. Joseph V. Koleske, Robert Springate, June 4, 2010;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2
  17. Dick Blick Artist Supply:
    Full Range of art supplies at discount prices and has pigment info on most paints they sell
  18. Kremer Pigmente EuropeKremer Pigments USA site;
    Has a huge amount of pigments and information.
  19. Earth Pigments:
    Specializes in earth pigments.
  20. Guerra Paint and Pigments:
    Many rare and out of production Pigments mostly in aqueous dispersions
  21. Sinopia:
    Lots of Pigments & info

Health and Safety in the Arts References and Info:

  1. Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB)
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  2. Art Materials Business Guidance
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  3. Art Safety
    Environmental Protection, Health & Safety, California State University at Monterey Bay
  4. Artist Safety
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University
  5. Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans
    U. S. Environment Protection Agency
  6. Exposing Ourselves to Art (PDF, 6.83 MB)
    Scott Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 3, March 1997
  7. Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation
    CoOL – Conservation Online, Stanford University Libraries
  8. Health and Safety Guides and Publications
    American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work
  9. Art Safety
    Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Connecticut College
  10. Health and the Arts Program
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  11. Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  12. Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
    New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
  13. Studio Safety
    Gamblin Artists Colors

 

 

*other ASTM specifications used the the labeling of artists materials are:

 

D4236-94(2011) Standard Practice for Labeling Art Materials for Chronic Health Hazards

D4302-05(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Oil, Resin-Oil, and Alkyd Paints

D4303-10 Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials

D4838-88(2010) Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Tinting Strength of Chromatic Paints

D4941-06(2010) Standard Practice for Preparing Drawdowns of Artists' Paste Paints

D5067-05(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Watercolor Paints

D5098-05a(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Acrylic Dispersion Paints

D5383-02(2010) Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists

D5398-97(2010) Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by the User

D5517-07 Standard Test Method for Determining Extractability of Metals from Art Materials
See also WK41263 proposed revision

D5724-06(2010) Standard Specification for Gouache Paints

D6801-07 Standard Test Method for Measuring Maximum Spontaneous Heating Temperature of Art and Other Materials

D6901-06 Standard Specification for Artists' Colored Pencils
See also WK27266 proposed revision

D7354-11 Standard Guide for Artists’ Paint Waste Disposal in Private, Non-Commercial Settings

D7355-10 Standard Guide for Artists' Paint Waste Disposal in Smaller Commercial or Educational Settings

D7733-12 Standard Specification for Acrylic Dispersion Ground

WK28388 New Specification for Traditional Artists Watercolor Paints
WK37409 New Test Method for Measuring Aspiration Potential of Aerosol Products
WK37916 New Specification for Standard Specification for Artists Pastels

 

I hope you you have found the Pigment Database useful info for oil painting and watercolor painting, acrylic painting or indeed any painting medium; I have tried to make this a good resource for the fine arts, that has the important information on toxicity of paint and art materials including the hazards of some craft materials used by decorators, interior designers, illustration and graphic designer;

 

© 2013 by David Myers all rights reserved

 

 

 

 


This page of the Color of Art Pigment Database was designed for C.I. Pigment Brown.

CI Pigment Brown is indicated with the pigment code "Pigment Brown" followed by the color index international's pigment identification code number or pigment ID number. The full color index name or generic pigment name is usually shortened to the Color Index code which for pigment Brown is "PBr" plus the color index # (after the "PBr" pigment Brown code designation there is the Color index identifying number code for the specific pigment, i.e. "PBr 6" or "PBr 7"). All artist paints and pigments that are ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials) and ASTM D4236 - 94* compliant that are sold in the United States must have the pigment identification number or generic chemical names of the brown pigments that were used to make the natural earth paints or dry pigments (either powdered brown pigments or in the commonly found "pigment dispersions") and should be have the generic pigment name printed on the paint label. The "Brown oil paint" tube or "Brown oil color" paint label, along with the label on tubes of acrylic paints, and on the label on tubes of watercolor even when found as pans, half-pans or dry cakes and often sold as a complete color palette or "watercolor set", will have the pigment or pigments index name on the label, or printed directly on the paint tube.

This color database is a also a great pigment reference made for DIY artist's and artisans that make their own paints with raw pigments and grind or mull the pigments into homemade paints giving them complete control over the paints grind, texture, and color. Making your own paints (paint making) by mulling the pigment in with a binding medium can be a rewarding and fun creative experience. The artist is involved in the process of creation, from the beginning with only the raw dry pigments and proceeding on to grinding pigments with a binding media (usually shortened to "binder"). For making oil paints, linseed oil is the most common binder (or medium). Walnut oil is also common oil used in making oil colors in the art studio and is less yellowing than linseed oil, There are other less common drying oils and some new alkyd resins the are sometimes used in making oil colors in the studio. Making (or grinding) watercolor paint is also fun and easy. The most common formula for making homemade watercolors is mostly water with some dissolved gum arabic (the glue that holds the paint together when dry). Honey and glycerin are common additives used in varying proportions to adjust the drying time and re-wetability of the dried watercolor. See the Art is Creation Recipe page for more info and paint making or grinding medium recipes. Egg-oil tempera and other media can be made in the art studio by DIY artists and it is creative and fun to make your very own paints. It is a very rewarded creative experience to grinding (mulling) your own paints and then finally making a painting or work of art, all entirely created by the artist themselves from start to finish.

The Art is Creation, Color of Art Pigment Database Reference has the resources and info on pigments used for artist paint, student paints, Oil color including:

  • Oil Paints
  • Watercolors
  • Acrylic Paint
  • Pigments used in making paint
  • Dry Pigments and Powders
  • Aqueous Pigment Dispersions
  • Fluid Acrylics
  • Airbrush Paint
  • Acrylic Gouache
  • Matte Acrylic Paints
  • Acrylic Vinyl
  • Acyclic paint or Alkyd Oils
  • Casein or Milk Paint
  • Encaustic painting
  • Gouache
  • Printing Inks or Pigmented Drawing inks
  • Oil sticks or Oil Bars
  • Oil Base Pigment Stick
  • Tempera or Egg Tempera
  • Watercolor Sticks
  • Watercolor Pigment Sticks or Bars
  • Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint